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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.40 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.39 2013/04/06 11:28:54 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.40 <version>11</version>
12     <date>2013-12-17</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.31
17 swift 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.31 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 swift 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
29     <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     <p>
33     The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
34 nightmorph 1.32 <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on.
35 swift 1.1 </p>
36    
37     <p>
38     The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
39     slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
44     disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
45     eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
46     reserved.
47     </p>
48    
49     </body>
50     </subsection>
51     </section>
52     <section>
53     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
54     <subsection>
55     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
56     <body>
57    
58     <p>
59 nightmorph 1.32 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme, the table below
60 swift 1.38 suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. Note that this is only an
61     example, so feel free to use different partitioning schemes yourself.
62 swift 1.1 </p>
63    
64     <p>
65     Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
66     recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
67     </p>
68    
69     <table>
70     <tr>
71     <th>Partition</th>
72     <th>Filesystem</th>
73     <th>Size</th>
74     <th>Mount Point</th>
75     <th>Description</th>
76     </tr>
77     <tr>
78 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
79 swift 1.37 <ti>ext4</ti>
80 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>&lt;2 GB</ti>
81     <ti>/</ti>
82     <ti>
83 swift 1.38 Root partition. For SPARC64 systems with OBP versions 3 or less, this
84 nightmorph 1.35 <e>must</e> be less than 2 GB in size, and the first partition on the
85 swift 1.38 disk. More recent OBP versions can deal with larger root partitions and,
86     as such, can support having <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path> and other
87     locations on the same partition.
88 nightmorph 1.35 </ti>
89     </tr>
90     <tr>
91     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
92     <ti>swap</ti>
93     <ti>512 MB</ti>
94     <ti>none</ti>
95     <ti>
96     Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
97     MB of RAM (including swap) is required.
98     </ti>
99     </tr>
100     <tr>
101     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
102     <ti>none</ti>
103     <ti>Whole disk</ti>
104     <ti>none</ti>
105     <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
106 swift 1.1 </tr>
107     <tr>
108 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
109 swift 1.37 <ti>ext4</ti>
110 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>at least 2 GB</ti>
111     <ti>/usr</ti>
112     <ti>
113     /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
114     is also used for Portage data (which takes around 500 MB excluding
115     source code).
116     </ti>
117 swift 1.1 </tr>
118     <tr>
119 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
120 swift 1.37 <ti>ext4</ti>
121 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>at least 1 GB</ti>
122     <ti>/var</ti>
123     <ti>
124     /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default Portage uses
125     this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
126 swift 1.40 applications such as Mozilla and LibreOffice.org can require over 1 GB
127 nightmorph 1.35 of temporary space here when building.
128     </ti>
129 swift 1.1 </tr>
130     <tr>
131 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
132 swift 1.37 <ti>ext4</ti>
133 nightmorph 1.35 <ti>remaining space</ti>
134     <ti>/home</ti>
135     <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
136 swift 1.1 </tr>
137     </table>
138    
139     </body>
140     </subsection>
141     </section>
142    
143     <section id="fdisk">
144     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
145     <subsection>
146     <body>
147    
148     <p>
149     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
150     previously, namely:
151     </p>
152    
153     <table>
154     <tr>
155     <th>Partition</th>
156     <th>Description</th>
157     </tr>
158     <tr>
159     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
160     <ti>/</ti>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
164     <ti>swap</ti>
165     </tr>
166     <tr>
167     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
168     <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
169     </tr>
170     <tr>
171     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
172     <ti>/usr</ti>
173     </tr>
174     <tr>
175     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
176     <ti>/var</ti>
177     </tr>
178     <tr>
179     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
180     <ti>/home</ti>
181     </tr>
182     </table>
183    
184     <p>
185     Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
186 nightmorph 1.35 entirely within the first 2 GB of the disk for older systems. There is also
187 swift 1.8 a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
188 swift 1.1 </p>
189    
190     </body>
191     </subsection>
192     <subsection>
193     <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
201     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
202     </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205     You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
206     </p>
207    
208     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
209     Command (m for help):
210     </pre>
211    
212     <p>
213     To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
214     </p>
215    
216     <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
217     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
218    
219     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
220     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
221    
222     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
223     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
224     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
225     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
226     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
227     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
228     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
229     </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232     Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
233     using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
234 nightmorph 1.35 to ensure that the disk has a Sun partition table:
235 swift 1.1 </p>
236    
237     <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
238 nightmorph 1.35 Command (m for help): <i>s</i>
239 swift 1.1 Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
240     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
241     content won't be recoverable.
242    
243     Drive type
244     ? auto configure
245     0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
246     a Quantum ProDrive 80S
247     b Quantum ProDrive 105S
248     c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
249     d IBM DPES-31080
250     e IBM DORS-32160
251     f IBM DNES-318350
252     g SEAGATE ST34371
253     h SUN0104
254     i SUN0207
255     j SUN0327
256     k SUN0340
257     l SUN0424
258     m SUN0535
259     n SUN0669
260     o SUN1.0G
261     p SUN1.05
262     q SUN1.3G
263     r SUN2.1G
264     s IOMEGA Jaz
265     Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
266     Heads (1-1024, default 64):
267     Using default value 64
268     Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
269     Using default value 32
270     Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
271     Using default value 8635
272     Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
273     Using default value 2
274     Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
275     Using default value 8637
276     Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
277     Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
278     Using default value 1
279     Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
280     Using default value 0
281     </pre>
282    
283     <p>
284     You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
285     'auto configure' option does not usually work.
286     </p>
287    
288     </body>
289     </subsection>
290     <subsection>
291     <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
292     <body>
293    
294     <p>
295     It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
296     Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
297     delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
298     </p>
299    
300     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
301     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
302     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
303     </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306     <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
307     this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
308     instructions above.
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312     After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
313     partition layout similar to the following:
314     </p>
315    
316     <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
317     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
318    
319     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
320     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
321    
322     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
323     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
324     </pre>
325    
326    
327     </body>
328     </subsection>
329    
330     <subsection>
331     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335 neysx 1.23 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
336     new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for
337     the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
338 nightmorph 1.35 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition <c>512 MB</c> in size. Make sure that the
339     entire root partition fits within the first 2 GB of the disk. You can see
340 neysx 1.23 output from these steps below:
341 swift 1.1 </p>
342    
343 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
344 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
345     Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
346     First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
347     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
348     </pre>
349    
350     <p>
351     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
352     </p>
353    
354     <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
355     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
356    
357     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
358     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
359    
360     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
361     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
362     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
363     </pre>
364 neysx 1.2
365 swift 1.1 </body>
366     </subsection>
367     <subsection>
368     <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
369     <body>
370    
371     <p>
372     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
373     partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
374     in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
375 nightmorph 1.35 the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512 MB in size. After
376 swift 1.1 you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
377     <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
378     steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
379     this:
380     </p>
381    
382     <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
383     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
384    
385     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
386     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
387    
388     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
389     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
390     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
391     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
392     </pre>
393    
394     </body>
395     </subsection>
396     <subsection>
397     <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
398     <body>
399    
400     <p>
401     Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
402     type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
403     third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
404     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
405 nightmorph 1.35 <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GB in size. Repeat this process
406 swift 1.1 for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
407     you're done, you should see something like this:
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
411     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
412    
413     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
414     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
415    
416     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
417     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
418     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
419     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
420     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
421     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
422     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
423     </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426     </subsection>
427     <subsection>
428     <title>Save and Exit</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
433     </p>
434    
435     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
436     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
437     </pre>
438    
439     <p>
440 nightmorph 1.33 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
441 swift 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
442     </p>
443    
444     </body>
445     </subsection>
446     </section>
447     <section id="filesystems">
448     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
449     <subsection>
450     <title>Introduction</title>
451     <body>
452    
453     <p>
454     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
455     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
456     used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
457     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
458     Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
459     </p>
460    
461     </body>
462     </subsection>
463 nightmorph 1.31
464 swift 1.1 <subsection>
465 nightmorph 1.31 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
466     </subsection>
467 swift 1.1
468     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
469     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
470     <body>
471    
472     <p>
473     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
474     filesystem are available:
475     </p>
476    
477     <table>
478     <tr>
479     <th>Filesystem</th>
480     <th>Creation Command</th>
481     </tr>
482     <tr>
483     <ti>ext2</ti>
484 swift 1.36 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
485 swift 1.1 </tr>
486     <tr>
487     <ti>ext3</ti>
488 swift 1.36 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
489     </tr>
490     <tr>
491     <ti>ext4</ti>
492     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
493 swift 1.1 </tr>
494     </table>
495    
496     <p>
497 swift 1.39 For instance, to create the root (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
498     example), <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
499 swift 1.1 <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
500 swift 1.37 and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext4, you would use:
501 swift 1.1 </p>
502    
503     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
504 swift 1.39 # <i>mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1</i>
505 swift 1.37 # <i>mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4</i>
506     # <i>mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda5</i>
507     # <i>mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda6</i>
508 swift 1.1 </pre>
509    
510     </body>
511     </subsection>
512     <subsection>
513     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
514     <body>
515    
516     <p>
517     <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
518     </p>
519    
520     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
521     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
522     </pre>
523    
524     <p>
525     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
526     </p>
527    
528     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
529     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
530     </pre>
531    
532     <p>
533 swift 1.17 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
534 swift 1.1 </p>
535    
536     </body>
537     </subsection>
538     </section>
539     <section>
540     <title>Mounting</title>
541     <body>
542    
543     <p>
544     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
545     time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
546     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
547     example:
548     </p>
549    
550     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
551     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
552     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
553     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
554     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
555 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
556 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
557 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
558 swift 1.1 </pre>
559    
560     <note>
561     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
562     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
563     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
564     </note>
565    
566     <p>
567 swift 1.5 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
568     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
569 swift 1.1 </p>
570    
571     <p>
572 swift 1.5 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
573 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
574     </p>
575    
576     </body>
577     </section>
578     </sections>

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