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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.16 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.15 2004/08/08 10:12:39 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39     swap)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43     link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
44     </li>
45     </ul>
46    
47     </body>
48     </subsection>
49     </section>
50     <section>
51     <title>Make your Choice</title>
52     <subsection>
53     <title>Introduction</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60     Gentoo base system.
61     </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     The installation media we will describe are:
65     </p>
66    
67     <ul>
68     <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
69     <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
70     </ul>
71    
72     <p>
73     Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
74     the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
75     make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
76     three-stage installation.
77     </p>
78    
79     </body>
80     </subsection>
81     <subsection>
82     <title>The Three Stages</title>
83     <body>
84    
85     <p>
86     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
87     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
88     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
89     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
90     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
91     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
92     been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
93     Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
94     packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
95     </p>
96    
97     <p>
98     Now what stage do you have to choose?
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
103     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
104     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
105     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
106     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
107     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
108     </p>
109    
110 swift 1.8 <p>
111     A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
112     Internet connection.
113     </p>
114    
115 swift 1.1 <table>
116     <tr>
117     <th>Stage1</th>
118     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
119     </tr>
120     <tr>
121     <th>+</th>
122     <ti>
123     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
124     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
125     </ti>
126     </tr>
127     <tr>
128     <th>+</th>
129     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
130     </tr>
131     <tr>
132     <th>+</th>
133     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
134     </tr>
135     <tr>
136     <th>-</th>
137     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <th>-</th>
141     <ti>
142     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
143     </ti>
144     </tr>
145 swift 1.8 <tr>
146     <th>-</th>
147     <ti>
148     Not suitable for networkless installations
149     </ti>
150     </tr>
151 swift 1.1 </table>
152    
153     <p>
154     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
155     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
156     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
157     </p>
158    
159 swift 1.8 <p>
160     A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
161     Internet connection.
162     </p>
163    
164 swift 1.1 <table>
165     <tr>
166     <th>Stage2</th>
167     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
168     </tr>
169     <tr>
170     <th>+</th>
171     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <th>+</th>
175     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <th>+</th>
179     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
180     </tr>
181     <tr>
182     <th>-</th>
183     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
184     </tr>
185     <tr>
186     <th>-</th>
187     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
188     </tr>
189     <tr>
190     <th>-</th>
191     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
192     </tr>
193 swift 1.8 <tr>
194     <th>-</th>
195     <ti>
196     Not suitable for networkless installations
197     </ti>
198     </tr>
199 swift 1.1 </table>
200    
201     <p>
202     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
203     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
204     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
205     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
206     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
207 swift 1.7 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
208 swift 1.1 </p>
209    
210     <table>
211     <tr>
212     <th>Stage3</th>
213     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
214     </tr>
215     <tr>
216     <th>+</th>
217     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
218     </tr>
219     <tr>
220 swift 1.8 <th>+</th>
221     <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
222     </tr>
223     <tr>
224 swift 1.1 <th>-</th>
225     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
226     </tr>
227     <tr>
228     <th>-</th>
229     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
230     </tr>
231     </table>
232    
233     <p>
234     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
235     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
236     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
237     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
238     with the new optimization settings.
239     </p>
240    
241     <p>
242     Now take a look at the available installation media.
243     </p>
244    
245     </body>
246     </subsection>
247     <subsection>
248     <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
249     <body>
250    
251     <p>
252     The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
253     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
254     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
255     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
256     </p>
257    
258     <p>
259     All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
260     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
261     LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
262     Gentoo without a working network configuration.
263     </p>
264    
265     <p>
266     Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
267     </p>
268    
269     </body>
270     </subsection>
271     <subsection>
272     <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
273     <body>
274    
275     <p>
276     This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
277     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
278     does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
279     source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
280     LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
281 swift 1.6 <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
282 swift 1.1 </p>
283    
284     <table>
285     <tr>
286     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
287     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
288     </tr>
289     <tr>
290     <th>+</th>
291     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
292     </tr>
293     <tr>
294     <th>+</th>
295     <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
296     </tr>
297     <tr>
298     <th>+</th>
299     <ti>
300     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
301     net
302     </ti>
303     </tr>
304     <tr>
305     <th>-</th>
306     <ti>
307     Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
308     suitable for networkless installation
309     </ti>
310     </tr>
311     </table>
312    
313     </body>
314     </subsection>
315     <subsection>
316     <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
317     <body>
318    
319     <p>
320     Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
321     networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
322     sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
323 swift 1.6 <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
324 swift 1.1 <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
329     that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
330     bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
331     after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
332     need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
333     etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
334     CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
335 swift 1.6 <c>packages-sparc64-2004.1.iso</c>.
336 swift 1.1 </p>
337    
338 swift 1.9 <p>
339     You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
340     installation.
341     </p>
342    
343 swift 1.1 <table>
344     <tr>
345     <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
346     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
347     </tr>
348     <tr>
349     <th>+</th>
350     <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
351     </tr>
352     <tr>
353     <th>+</th>
354     <ti>
355     Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
356     </ti>
357     </tr>
358     <tr>
359     <th>+</th>
360     <ti>
361     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
362     connection.
363     </ti>
364     </tr>
365     <tr>
366     <th>-</th>
367     <ti>Huge download</ti>
368     </tr>
369     </table>
370    
371     </body>
372     </subsection>
373     </section>
374     <section>
375     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
376     <subsection>
377     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
382     wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
383     LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
384     find them?
385     </p>
386    
387     <p>
388     Visit one of our <uri
389     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
390 swift 1.6 <path>releases/sparc/2004.1/livecd</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
391     your choice are located. Inside the subdirectories <path>sparc32/</path> and
392     <path>sparc64/</path> you'll find so-called ISO-files.
393 swift 1.1 Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
394     </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
398     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
399 swift 1.6 <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
400 swift 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
401 neysx 1.13 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
402 swift 1.1 </p>
403    
404     <p>
405 swift 1.10 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
406     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
407     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
411 swift 1.14 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
412 swift 1.10 </pre>
413    
414     <p>
415     Now verify the signature:
416     </p>
417    
418     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
419 swift 1.14 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
420 swift 1.10 </pre>
421    
422     <p>
423 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
424 swift 1.11 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
425     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
426     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
427 swift 1.1 </p>
428    
429     <ul>
430     <li>
431     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
432     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
433     by the path to the ISO file :)
434     </li>
435 swift 1.2 <li>
436 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
437     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
438 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
439     </li>
440 swift 1.1 </ul>
441    
442     </body>
443     </subsection>
444     <subsection>
445     <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
446     <body>
447    
448     <p>
449     Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
450     press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
451     CD-ROM:
452     </p>
453    
454     <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
455     ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
456     </pre>
457    
458     <p>
459     You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
460 swift 1.6 <c>gentoo-2.4</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>gentoo-2.4-smp</c>
461     (multi-CPU kernel) and press enter to continue booting the system. In the
462     following example we'll boot the <c>gentoo-2.4</c> kernel.
463 swift 1.1 </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
466 swift 1.6 boot: <i>gentoo-2.4</i>
467 swift 1.1 </pre>
468    
469     <p>
470     Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
471     <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
472     </p>
473    
474     <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
475     login: <i>root</i>
476     password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
477     </pre>
478    
479     <p>
480     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
481     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
482     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
483     </p>
484    
485     <p>
486     Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
487     </p>
488    
489     </body>
490     </subsection>
491     <subsection id="hardware">
492     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
493     <body>
494    
495     <p>
496     If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
497     appropriate kernel modules.
498     </p>
499    
500     <p>
501     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
502     certain kinds of network interfaces):
503     </p>
504    
505     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
506     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
507     </pre>
508    
509     </body>
510     </subsection>
511     <subsection>
512     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
513     <body>
514    
515     <p>
516     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
517     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
518     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
519     more precise impression):
520     </p>
521    
522     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
523     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
524     </pre>
525    
526     <p>
527     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
528     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
529     disk):
530     </p>
531    
532     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
533     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
534     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
535     </pre>
536    
537     </body>
538     </subsection>
539 swift 1.15 <subsection id="useraccounts">
540 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
541     <body>
542    
543     <p>
544     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
545     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
546     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
547     the root password.
548     </p>
549    
550     <p>
551     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
552     </p>
553    
554     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
555     # <i>passwd</i>
556     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
557     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
558     </pre>
559    
560     <p>
561 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
562 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
563     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
564     </p>
565    
566     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
567     # <i>useradd john</i>
568     # <i>passwd john</i>
569     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
570     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
571     </pre>
572    
573     <p>
574     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
575     <c>su</c>:
576     </p>
577    
578     <pre caption="Changing user id">
579 swift 1.16 # <i>su - john</i>
580 swift 1.1 </pre>
581    
582     </body>
583     </subsection>
584     <subsection>
585 swift 1.15 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
586     <body>
587    
588     <p>
589     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
590     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
591     link="#useraccouts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
592     go to a new terminal and log in.
593     </p>
594    
595     <p>
596     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
597     <c>links2</c> to read it:
598     </p>
599    
600     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
601     # <i>links2 /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
602     </pre>
603    
604     <p>
605     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
606     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links2</c>
607     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
608     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
609     document):
610     </p>
611    
612     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
613     # <i>links2 http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml</i>
614     </pre>
615    
616     <p>
617     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
618     </p>
619    
620     </body>
621     </subsection>
622     <subsection>
623 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
624     <body>
625    
626     <p>
627     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
628     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
629     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
630     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
631     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
632     </p>
633    
634     <p>
635     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
636     </p>
637    
638     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
639     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
640     </pre>
641    
642     <p>
643     To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
644     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
645     </p>
646    
647     </body>
648     </subsection>
649     </section>
650     </sections>

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