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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.22 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/09 13:05:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.21
11     <version>1.20</version>
12     <date>November 4, 2004</date>
13    
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
23     architecture.
24     </p>
25    
26     </body>
27     </subsection>
28     <subsection>
29     <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>
33     Check the following requirements before you
34     continue with the Gentoo installation:
35     </p>
36    
37     <ul>
38     <li>
39     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
43     swap)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
47     link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
48     </li>
49     </ul>
50    
51     </body>
52     </subsection>
53     </section>
54     <section>
55     <title>Make your Choice</title>
56     <subsection>
57     <title>Introduction</title>
58     <body>
59    
60     <p>
61     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
62     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
63     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
64     Gentoo base system.
65     </p>
66    
67     <p>
68     The installation media we will describe are:
69     </p>
70    
71     <ul>
72     <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
73     <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
74     </ul>
75    
76     <p>
77     Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
78     the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
79     make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
80     three-stage installation.
81     </p>
82    
83     </body>
84     </subsection>
85     <subsection>
86     <title>The Three Stages</title>
87     <body>
88    
89     <p>
90     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
91     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
92     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
93     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
94     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
95     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
96     been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
97     Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
98     packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     Now what stage do you have to choose?
103     </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
107     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
108     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
109     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
110     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
111     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
112     </p>
113    
114 swift 1.8 <p>
115     A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
116     Internet connection.
117     </p>
118    
119 swift 1.1 <table>
120     <tr>
121     <th>Stage1</th>
122     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
123     </tr>
124     <tr>
125     <th>+</th>
126     <ti>
127     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
128     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
129     </ti>
130     </tr>
131     <tr>
132     <th>+</th>
133     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
134     </tr>
135     <tr>
136     <th>+</th>
137     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <th>-</th>
141     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
142     </tr>
143     <tr>
144     <th>-</th>
145     <ti>
146     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
147     </ti>
148     </tr>
149 swift 1.8 <tr>
150     <th>-</th>
151     <ti>
152     Not suitable for networkless installations
153     </ti>
154     </tr>
155 swift 1.1 </table>
156    
157     <p>
158     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
159     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
160     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
161     </p>
162    
163 swift 1.8 <p>
164     A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
165     Internet connection.
166     </p>
167    
168 swift 1.1 <table>
169     <tr>
170     <th>Stage2</th>
171     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <th>+</th>
175     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <th>+</th>
179     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
180     </tr>
181     <tr>
182     <th>+</th>
183     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
184     </tr>
185     <tr>
186     <th>-</th>
187     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
188     </tr>
189     <tr>
190     <th>-</th>
191     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
192     </tr>
193     <tr>
194     <th>-</th>
195     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
196     </tr>
197 swift 1.8 <tr>
198     <th>-</th>
199     <ti>
200     Not suitable for networkless installations
201     </ti>
202     </tr>
203 swift 1.1 </table>
204    
205     <p>
206     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
207     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
208     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
209     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
210     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
211 swift 1.7 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
212 swift 1.1 </p>
213    
214     <table>
215     <tr>
216     <th>Stage3</th>
217     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
218     </tr>
219     <tr>
220     <th>+</th>
221     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
222     </tr>
223     <tr>
224 swift 1.8 <th>+</th>
225     <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
226     </tr>
227     <tr>
228 swift 1.1 <th>-</th>
229     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
230     </tr>
231     <tr>
232     <th>-</th>
233     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
234     </tr>
235     </table>
236    
237     <p>
238     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
239     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
240     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
241     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
242     with the new optimization settings.
243     </p>
244    
245     <p>
246     Now take a look at the available installation media.
247     </p>
248    
249     </body>
250     </subsection>
251     <subsection>
252     <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
253     <body>
254    
255     <p>
256     The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
257     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
258     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
259     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
260     </p>
261    
262     <p>
263 swift 1.18 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
264 swift 1.1 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
265     LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
266     Gentoo without a working network configuration.
267     </p>
268    
269     <p>
270     Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
271     </p>
272    
273     </body>
274     </subsection>
275     <subsection>
276     <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
277     <body>
278    
279     <p>
280     This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
281     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
282     does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
283     source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
284     LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
285 swift 1.22 <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.3.iso</c>.
286 swift 1.1 </p>
287    
288     <table>
289     <tr>
290     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
291     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
292     </tr>
293     <tr>
294     <th>+</th>
295     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
296     </tr>
297     <tr>
298     <th>+</th>
299     <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
300     </tr>
301     <tr>
302     <th>+</th>
303     <ti>
304     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
305     net
306     </ti>
307     </tr>
308     <tr>
309     <th>-</th>
310     <ti>
311 swift 1.17 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
312 swift 1.1 suitable for networkless installation
313     </ti>
314     </tr>
315     </table>
316    
317     </body>
318     </subsection>
319     <subsection>
320     <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
321     <body>
322    
323     <p>
324     Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
325     networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
326     sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
327 swift 1.22 <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.3.iso</c> and can be found in the
328 swift 1.1 <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
329     </p>
330    
331     <p>
332     If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
333     that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
334     bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
335     after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
336     need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
337     etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
338     CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
339 swift 1.22 <c>packages-sparc64-2004.3.iso</c>.
340 swift 1.1 </p>
341    
342 swift 1.9 <p>
343     You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
344     installation.
345     </p>
346    
347 swift 1.1 <table>
348     <tr>
349     <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
350     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
351     </tr>
352     <tr>
353     <th>+</th>
354     <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
355     </tr>
356     <tr>
357     <th>+</th>
358     <ti>
359     Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
360     </ti>
361     </tr>
362     <tr>
363     <th>+</th>
364     <ti>
365     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
366     connection.
367     </ti>
368     </tr>
369     <tr>
370     <th>-</th>
371     <ti>Huge download</ti>
372     </tr>
373     </table>
374    
375     </body>
376     </subsection>
377     </section>
378     <section>
379     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
380     <subsection>
381     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
386     wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
387     LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
388     find them?
389     </p>
390    
391     <p>
392     Visit one of our <uri
393     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
394 swift 1.22 <path>releases/sparc/2004.3/livecd</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
395 swift 1.6 your choice are located. Inside the subdirectories <path>sparc32/</path> and
396     <path>sparc64/</path> you'll find so-called ISO-files.
397 swift 1.1 Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
398     </p>
399    
400     <p>
401     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
402     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
403 swift 1.22 <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.3.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
404 swift 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
405 neysx 1.13 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
406 swift 1.1 </p>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.10 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
410     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
411     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
412     </p>
413    
414     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
415 swift 1.14 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
416 swift 1.10 </pre>
417    
418     <p>
419     Now verify the signature:
420     </p>
421    
422     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
423 swift 1.14 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
424 swift 1.10 </pre>
425    
426     <p>
427 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
428 swift 1.11 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
429     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
430     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
431 swift 1.1 </p>
432    
433     <ul>
434     <li>
435     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
436     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
437     by the path to the ISO file :)
438     </li>
439 swift 1.2 <li>
440 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
441     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
442 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
443     </li>
444 swift 1.1 </ul>
445    
446     </body>
447     </subsection>
448     <subsection>
449     <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453     Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
454     press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
455     CD-ROM:
456     </p>
457    
458     <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
459     ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
460     </pre>
461    
462     <p>
463     You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
464 swift 1.6 <c>gentoo-2.4</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>gentoo-2.4-smp</c>
465     (multi-CPU kernel) and press enter to continue booting the system. In the
466     following example we'll boot the <c>gentoo-2.4</c> kernel.
467 swift 1.1 </p>
468    
469     <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
470 swift 1.6 boot: <i>gentoo-2.4</i>
471 swift 1.1 </pre>
472    
473     <p>
474     Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
475     <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
476     </p>
477    
478     <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
479     login: <i>root</i>
480     password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
481     </pre>
482    
483     <p>
484     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
485     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
486     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
487     </p>
488    
489     <p>
490     Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
491     </p>
492    
493     </body>
494     </subsection>
495     <subsection id="hardware">
496     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
497     <body>
498    
499     <p>
500     If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
501     appropriate kernel modules.
502     </p>
503    
504     <p>
505     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
506     certain kinds of network interfaces):
507     </p>
508    
509     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
510     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
511     </pre>
512    
513     </body>
514     </subsection>
515     <subsection>
516     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
517     <body>
518    
519     <p>
520     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
521     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
522     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
523     more precise impression):
524     </p>
525    
526     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
527     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
528     </pre>
529    
530     <p>
531     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
532     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
533     disk):
534     </p>
535    
536     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
537     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
538     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
539     </pre>
540    
541     </body>
542     </subsection>
543 swift 1.15 <subsection id="useraccounts">
544 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
545     <body>
546    
547     <p>
548     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
549     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
550     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
551     the root password.
552     </p>
553    
554     <p>
555     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
556     </p>
557    
558     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
559     # <i>passwd</i>
560     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
561     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
562     </pre>
563    
564     <p>
565 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
566 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
567     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
568     </p>
569    
570     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
571 swift 1.19 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
572 swift 1.1 # <i>passwd john</i>
573     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
574     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
575     </pre>
576    
577     <p>
578     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
579     <c>su</c>:
580     </p>
581    
582     <pre caption="Changing user id">
583 swift 1.16 # <i>su - john</i>
584 swift 1.1 </pre>
585    
586     </body>
587     </subsection>
588     <subsection>
589 swift 1.15 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
590     <body>
591    
592     <p>
593     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
594     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
595 neysx 1.20 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
596 swift 1.15 go to a new terminal and log in.
597     </p>
598    
599     <p>
600     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
601     <c>links2</c> to read it:
602     </p>
603    
604     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
605     # <i>links2 /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
606     </pre>
607    
608     <p>
609     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
610     more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links2</c>
611     as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
612     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
613     document):
614     </p>
615    
616     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
617     # <i>links2 http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml</i>
618     </pre>
619    
620     <p>
621     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
622     </p>
623    
624     </body>
625     </subsection>
626     <subsection>
627 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
628     <body>
629    
630     <p>
631     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
632     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
633     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
634     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
635     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
636     </p>
637    
638     <p>
639     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
640     </p>
641    
642     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
643     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
644     </pre>
645    
646     <p>
647 swift 1.18 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
648 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
649     </p>
650    
651     </body>
652     </subsection>
653     </section>
654     </sections>

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