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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 bennyc 1.5 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.4 2004/04/15 11:59:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39     swap)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43     link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
44     </li>
45     </ul>
46    
47     </body>
48     </subsection>
49     </section>
50     <section>
51     <title>Make your Choice</title>
52     <subsection>
53     <title>Introduction</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60     Gentoo base system.
61     </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     The installation media we will describe are:
65     </p>
66    
67     <ul>
68     <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
69     <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
70     </ul>
71    
72     <p>
73     Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
74     the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
75     make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
76     three-stage installation.
77     </p>
78    
79     </body>
80     </subsection>
81     <subsection>
82     <title>The Three Stages</title>
83     <body>
84    
85     <p>
86     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
87     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
88     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
89     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
90     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
91     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
92     been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
93     Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
94     packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
95     </p>
96    
97     <p>
98     Now what stage do you have to choose?
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
103     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
104     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
105     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
106     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
107     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
108     </p>
109    
110     <table>
111     <tr>
112     <th>Stage1</th>
113     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
114     </tr>
115     <tr>
116     <th>+</th>
117     <ti>
118     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
119     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
120     </ti>
121     </tr>
122     <tr>
123     <th>+</th>
124     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
125     </tr>
126     <tr>
127     <th>+</th>
128     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <th>-</th>
132     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
133     </tr>
134     <tr>
135     <th>-</th>
136     <ti>
137     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
138     </ti>
139     </tr>
140     </table>
141    
142     <p>
143     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
144     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
145     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
146     </p>
147    
148     <table>
149     <tr>
150     <th>Stage2</th>
151     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
152     </tr>
153     <tr>
154     <th>+</th>
155     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
156     </tr>
157     <tr>
158     <th>+</th>
159     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
160     </tr>
161     <tr>
162     <th>+</th>
163     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
164     </tr>
165     <tr>
166     <th>-</th>
167     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
168     </tr>
169     <tr>
170     <th>-</th>
171     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <th>-</th>
175     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
176     </tr>
177     </table>
178    
179     <p>
180     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
181     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
182     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
183     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
184     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
185     prebuilt packages.
186     </p>
187    
188     <table>
189     <tr>
190     <th>Stage3</th>
191     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
192     </tr>
193     <tr>
194     <th>+</th>
195     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
196     </tr>
197     <tr>
198     <th>-</th>
199     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
200     </tr>
201     <tr>
202     <th>-</th>
203     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
204     </tr>
205     </table>
206    
207     <p>
208     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
209     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
210     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
211     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
212     with the new optimization settings.
213     </p>
214    
215     <p>
216     Now take a look at the available installation media.
217     </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221     <subsection>
222     <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
223     <body>
224    
225     <p>
226     The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
227     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
228     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
229     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233     All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
234     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
235     LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
236     Gentoo without a working network configuration.
237     </p>
238    
239     <p>
240     Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
241     </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     <subsection>
246     <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
251     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
252     does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
253     source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
254     LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
255     <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.0.iso</c>.
256     </p>
257    
258     <table>
259     <tr>
260     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
261     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
262     </tr>
263     <tr>
264     <th>+</th>
265     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
266     </tr>
267     <tr>
268     <th>+</th>
269     <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
270     </tr>
271     <tr>
272     <th>+</th>
273     <ti>
274     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
275     net
276     </ti>
277     </tr>
278     <tr>
279     <th>-</th>
280     <ti>
281     Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
282     suitable for networkless installation
283     </ti>
284     </tr>
285     </table>
286    
287     </body>
288     </subsection>
289     <subsection>
290     <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
295     networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
296     sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
297     <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.0.iso</c> and can be found in the
298     <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
299     </p>
300    
301     <p>
302     If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
303     that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
304     bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
305     after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
306     need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
307     etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
308     CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
309     <c>packages-sparc64-2004.0.iso</c>.
310     </p>
311    
312     <table>
313     <tr>
314     <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
315     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
316     </tr>
317     <tr>
318     <th>+</th>
319     <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
320     </tr>
321     <tr>
322     <th>+</th>
323     <ti>
324     Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
325     </ti>
326     </tr>
327     <tr>
328     <th>+</th>
329     <ti>
330     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
331     connection.
332     </ti>
333     </tr>
334     <tr>
335     <th>-</th>
336     <ti>Huge download</ti>
337     </tr>
338     </table>
339    
340     </body>
341     </subsection>
342     </section>
343     <section>
344     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
345     <subsection>
346     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
351     wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
352     LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
353     find them?
354     </p>
355    
356     <p>
357     Visit one of our <uri
358     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
359     <path>releases/sparc/2004.0/livecd/sparc64</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
360     your choice are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files.
361     Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
362     </p>
363    
364     <p>
365     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
366     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
367     <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.0.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
368     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
369     link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
370     </p>
371    
372     <p>
373     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
374     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
375     tools on how to do this.
376     </p>
377    
378     <ul>
379     <li>
380     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
381     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
382     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
383     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
384     </li>
385     <li>
386     With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
387     type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
388     will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
389     recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
390     following parameters:
391     <ul>
392     <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
393     <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
394     <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
395     <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
396     <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
397     </ul>
398     Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
399     </li>
400     <li>
401     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
402     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
403     by the path to the ISO file :)
404     </li>
405 swift 1.2 <li>
406 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
407     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
408 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
409     </li>
410 swift 1.1 </ul>
411    
412     </body>
413     </subsection>
414     <subsection>
415     <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
416     <body>
417    
418     <p>
419     Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
420     press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
421     CD-ROM:
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
425     ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
426     </pre>
427    
428     <p>
429     You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
430     <c>gentoo</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>smp</c> (multi-CPU kernel) and press
431     enter to continue booting the system. In the following example we'll boot the
432     <c>gentoo</c> kernel.
433     </p>
434    
435     <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
436     boot: <i>gentoo</i>
437     </pre>
438    
439     <p>
440     Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
441     <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
442     </p>
443    
444     <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
445     login: <i>root</i>
446     password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
447     </pre>
448    
449     <p>
450     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
451     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
452     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
453     </p>
454    
455     <p>
456     Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
457     </p>
458    
459     </body>
460     </subsection>
461     <subsection id="hardware">
462     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
463     <body>
464    
465     <p>
466     If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
467     appropriate kernel modules.
468     </p>
469    
470     <p>
471     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
472     certain kinds of network interfaces):
473     </p>
474    
475     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
476     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
477     </pre>
478    
479     </body>
480     </subsection>
481     <subsection>
482     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
483     <body>
484    
485     <p>
486     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
487     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
488     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
489     more precise impression):
490     </p>
491    
492     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
493     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
494     </pre>
495    
496     <p>
497     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
498     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
499     disk):
500     </p>
501    
502     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
503     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
504     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
505     </pre>
506    
507     </body>
508     </subsection>
509     <subsection>
510     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
511     <body>
512    
513     <p>
514     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
515     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
516     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
517     the root password.
518     </p>
519    
520     <p>
521     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
522     </p>
523    
524     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
525     # <i>passwd</i>
526     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
527     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
528     </pre>
529    
530     <p>
531 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
532 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
533     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
534     </p>
535    
536     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
537     # <i>useradd john</i>
538     # <i>passwd john</i>
539     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
540     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
541     </pre>
542    
543     <p>
544     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
545     <c>su</c>:
546     </p>
547    
548     <pre caption="Changing user id">
549     # <i>su john -</i>
550     </pre>
551    
552     </body>
553     </subsection>
554     <subsection>
555     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
556     <body>
557    
558     <p>
559     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
560     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
561     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
562     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
563     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
564     </p>
565    
566     <p>
567     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
568     </p>
569    
570     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
571     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
572     </pre>
573    
574     <p>
575     To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
576     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
577     </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </subsection>
581     </section>
582     </sections>

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