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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.6 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.7 2004/04/19 13:49:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39     swap)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43     link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
44     </li>
45     </ul>
46    
47     </body>
48     </subsection>
49     </section>
50     <section>
51     <title>Make your Choice</title>
52     <subsection>
53     <title>Introduction</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60     Gentoo base system.
61     </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     The installation media we will describe are:
65     </p>
66    
67     <ul>
68     <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
69     <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
70     </ul>
71    
72     <p>
73     Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
74     the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
75     make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
76     three-stage installation.
77     </p>
78    
79     </body>
80     </subsection>
81     <subsection>
82     <title>The Three Stages</title>
83     <body>
84    
85     <p>
86     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
87     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
88     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
89     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
90     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
91     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
92     been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
93     Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
94     packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
95     </p>
96    
97     <p>
98     Now what stage do you have to choose?
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
103     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
104     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
105     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
106     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
107     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
108     </p>
109    
110     <table>
111     <tr>
112     <th>Stage1</th>
113     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
114     </tr>
115     <tr>
116     <th>+</th>
117     <ti>
118     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
119     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
120     </ti>
121     </tr>
122     <tr>
123     <th>+</th>
124     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
125     </tr>
126     <tr>
127     <th>+</th>
128     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <th>-</th>
132     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
133     </tr>
134     <tr>
135     <th>-</th>
136     <ti>
137     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
138     </ti>
139     </tr>
140     </table>
141    
142     <p>
143     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
144     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
145     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
146     </p>
147    
148     <table>
149     <tr>
150     <th>Stage2</th>
151     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
152     </tr>
153     <tr>
154     <th>+</th>
155     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
156     </tr>
157     <tr>
158     <th>+</th>
159     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
160     </tr>
161     <tr>
162     <th>+</th>
163     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
164     </tr>
165     <tr>
166     <th>-</th>
167     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
168     </tr>
169     <tr>
170     <th>-</th>
171     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <th>-</th>
175     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
176     </tr>
177     </table>
178    
179     <p>
180     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
181     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
182     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
183     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
184     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
185     prebuilt packages.
186     </p>
187    
188     <table>
189     <tr>
190     <th>Stage3</th>
191     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
192     </tr>
193     <tr>
194     <th>+</th>
195     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
196     </tr>
197     <tr>
198     <th>-</th>
199     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
200     </tr>
201     <tr>
202     <th>-</th>
203     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
204     </tr>
205     </table>
206    
207     <p>
208     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
209     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
210     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
211     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
212     with the new optimization settings.
213     </p>
214    
215     <p>
216     Now take a look at the available installation media.
217     </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221     <subsection>
222     <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
223     <body>
224    
225     <p>
226     The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
227     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
228     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
229     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233     All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
234     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
235     LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
236     Gentoo without a working network configuration.
237     </p>
238    
239     <p>
240     Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
241     </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     <subsection>
246     <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
251     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
252     does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
253     source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
254     LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
255 swift 1.6 <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
256 swift 1.1 </p>
257    
258     <table>
259     <tr>
260     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
261     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
262     </tr>
263     <tr>
264     <th>+</th>
265     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
266     </tr>
267     <tr>
268     <th>+</th>
269     <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
270     </tr>
271     <tr>
272     <th>+</th>
273     <ti>
274     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
275     net
276     </ti>
277     </tr>
278     <tr>
279     <th>-</th>
280     <ti>
281     Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
282     suitable for networkless installation
283     </ti>
284     </tr>
285     </table>
286    
287     </body>
288     </subsection>
289     <subsection>
290     <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
295     networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
296     sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
297 swift 1.6 <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
298 swift 1.1 <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
299     </p>
300    
301     <p>
302     If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
303     that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
304     bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
305     after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
306     need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
307     etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
308     CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
309 swift 1.6 <c>packages-sparc64-2004.1.iso</c>.
310 swift 1.1 </p>
311    
312     <table>
313     <tr>
314     <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
315     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
316     </tr>
317     <tr>
318     <th>+</th>
319     <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
320     </tr>
321     <tr>
322     <th>+</th>
323     <ti>
324     Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
325     </ti>
326     </tr>
327     <tr>
328     <th>+</th>
329     <ti>
330     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
331     connection.
332     </ti>
333     </tr>
334     <tr>
335     <th>-</th>
336     <ti>Huge download</ti>
337     </tr>
338     </table>
339    
340     </body>
341     </subsection>
342     </section>
343     <section>
344     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
345     <subsection>
346     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
351     wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
352     LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
353     find them?
354     </p>
355    
356     <p>
357     Visit one of our <uri
358     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
359 swift 1.6 <path>releases/sparc/2004.1/livecd</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
360     your choice are located. Inside the subdirectories <path>sparc32/</path> and
361     <path>sparc64/</path> you'll find so-called ISO-files.
362 swift 1.1 Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>
366     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
367     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
368 swift 1.6 <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
369 swift 1.1 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
370     link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
371     </p>
372    
373     <p>
374     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
375     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
376     tools on how to do this.
377     </p>
378    
379     <ul>
380     <li>
381     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
382     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
383     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
384     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
385     </li>
386     <li>
387     With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
388     type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
389     will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
390     recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
391     following parameters:
392     <ul>
393     <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
394     <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
395     <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
396     <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
397     <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
398     </ul>
399     Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
400     </li>
401     <li>
402     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
403     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
404     by the path to the ISO file :)
405     </li>
406 swift 1.2 <li>
407 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
408     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
409 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
410     </li>
411 swift 1.1 </ul>
412    
413     </body>
414     </subsection>
415     <subsection>
416     <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
417     <body>
418    
419     <p>
420     Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
421     press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
422     CD-ROM:
423     </p>
424    
425     <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
426     ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     <p>
430     You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
431 swift 1.6 <c>gentoo-2.4</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>gentoo-2.4-smp</c>
432     (multi-CPU kernel) and press enter to continue booting the system. In the
433     following example we'll boot the <c>gentoo-2.4</c> kernel.
434 swift 1.1 </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
437 swift 1.6 boot: <i>gentoo-2.4</i>
438 swift 1.1 </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441     Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
442     <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
443     </p>
444    
445     <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
446     login: <i>root</i>
447     password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
448     </pre>
449    
450     <p>
451     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
452     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
453     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
454     </p>
455    
456     <p>
457     Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
458     </p>
459    
460     </body>
461     </subsection>
462     <subsection id="hardware">
463     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
464     <body>
465    
466     <p>
467     If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
468     appropriate kernel modules.
469     </p>
470    
471     <p>
472     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
473     certain kinds of network interfaces):
474     </p>
475    
476     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
477     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
478     </pre>
479    
480     </body>
481     </subsection>
482     <subsection>
483     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
484     <body>
485    
486     <p>
487     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
488     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
489     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
490     more precise impression):
491     </p>
492    
493     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
494     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
499     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
500     disk):
501     </p>
502    
503     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
504     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
505     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
506     </pre>
507    
508     </body>
509     </subsection>
510     <subsection>
511     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
512     <body>
513    
514     <p>
515     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
516     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
517     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
518     the root password.
519     </p>
520    
521     <p>
522     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
523     </p>
524    
525     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
526     # <i>passwd</i>
527     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
528     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
529     </pre>
530    
531     <p>
532 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
533 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
534     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
535     </p>
536    
537     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
538     # <i>useradd john</i>
539     # <i>passwd john</i>
540     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
541     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
542     </pre>
543    
544     <p>
545     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
546     <c>su</c>:
547     </p>
548    
549     <pre caption="Changing user id">
550     # <i>su john -</i>
551     </pre>
552    
553     </body>
554     </subsection>
555     <subsection>
556     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
557     <body>
558    
559     <p>
560     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
561     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
562     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
563     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
564     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
565     </p>
566    
567     <p>
568     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
569     </p>
570    
571     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
572     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
573     </pre>
574    
575     <p>
576     To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
577     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
578     </p>
579    
580     </body>
581     </subsection>
582     </section>
583     </sections>

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