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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.12 2004/07/03 19:01:52 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39 swap)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43 link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
44 </li>
45 </ul>
46
47 </body>
48 </subsection>
49 </section>
50 <section>
51 <title>Make your Choice</title>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Introduction</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60 Gentoo base system.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 The installation media we will describe are:
65 </p>
66
67 <ul>
68 <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
69 <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
70 </ul>
71
72 <p>
73 Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
74 the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
75 make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
76 three-stage installation.
77 </p>
78
79 </body>
80 </subsection>
81 <subsection>
82 <title>The Three Stages</title>
83 <body>
84
85 <p>
86 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
87 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
88 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
89 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
90 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
91 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
92 been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
93 Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
94 packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 Now what stage do you have to choose?
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
103 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
104 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
105 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
106 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
107 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
108 </p>
109
110 <p>
111 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
112 Internet connection.
113 </p>
114
115 <table>
116 <tr>
117 <th>Stage1</th>
118 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
119 </tr>
120 <tr>
121 <th>+</th>
122 <ti>
123 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
124 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
125 </ti>
126 </tr>
127 <tr>
128 <th>+</th>
129 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
130 </tr>
131 <tr>
132 <th>+</th>
133 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
134 </tr>
135 <tr>
136 <th>-</th>
137 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <th>-</th>
141 <ti>
142 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
143 </ti>
144 </tr>
145 <tr>
146 <th>-</th>
147 <ti>
148 Not suitable for networkless installations
149 </ti>
150 </tr>
151 </table>
152
153 <p>
154 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
155 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
156 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
157 </p>
158
159 <p>
160 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
161 Internet connection.
162 </p>
163
164 <table>
165 <tr>
166 <th>Stage2</th>
167 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
168 </tr>
169 <tr>
170 <th>+</th>
171 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
172 </tr>
173 <tr>
174 <th>+</th>
175 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
176 </tr>
177 <tr>
178 <th>+</th>
179 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
180 </tr>
181 <tr>
182 <th>-</th>
183 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
184 </tr>
185 <tr>
186 <th>-</th>
187 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
188 </tr>
189 <tr>
190 <th>-</th>
191 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
192 </tr>
193 <tr>
194 <th>-</th>
195 <ti>
196 Not suitable for networkless installations
197 </ti>
198 </tr>
199 </table>
200
201 <p>
202 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
203 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
204 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
205 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
206 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
207 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
208 </p>
209
210 <table>
211 <tr>
212 <th>Stage3</th>
213 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
214 </tr>
215 <tr>
216 <th>+</th>
217 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
218 </tr>
219 <tr>
220 <th>+</th>
221 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <th>-</th>
225 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
226 </tr>
227 <tr>
228 <th>-</th>
229 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
230 </tr>
231 </table>
232
233 <p>
234 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
235 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
236 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
237 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
238 with the new optimization settings.
239 </p>
240
241 <p>
242 Now take a look at the available installation media.
243 </p>
244
245 </body>
246 </subsection>
247 <subsection>
248 <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
249 <body>
250
251 <p>
252 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
253 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
254 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
255 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
256 </p>
257
258 <p>
259 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
260 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
261 LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
262 Gentoo without a working network configuration.
263 </p>
264
265 <p>
266 Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </subsection>
271 <subsection>
272 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
277 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
278 does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
279 source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
280 LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
281 <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
282 </p>
283
284 <table>
285 <tr>
286 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
287 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
288 </tr>
289 <tr>
290 <th>+</th>
291 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
292 </tr>
293 <tr>
294 <th>+</th>
295 <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
296 </tr>
297 <tr>
298 <th>+</th>
299 <ti>
300 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
301 net
302 </ti>
303 </tr>
304 <tr>
305 <th>-</th>
306 <ti>
307 Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
308 suitable for networkless installation
309 </ti>
310 </tr>
311 </table>
312
313 </body>
314 </subsection>
315 <subsection>
316 <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
321 networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
322 sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
323 <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
324 <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
329 that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
330 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
331 after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
332 need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
333 etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
334 CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
335 <c>packages-sparc64-2004.1.iso</c>.
336 </p>
337
338 <p>
339 You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
340 installation.
341 </p>
342
343 <table>
344 <tr>
345 <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
346 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
347 </tr>
348 <tr>
349 <th>+</th>
350 <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
351 </tr>
352 <tr>
353 <th>+</th>
354 <ti>
355 Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
356 </ti>
357 </tr>
358 <tr>
359 <th>+</th>
360 <ti>
361 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
362 connection.
363 </ti>
364 </tr>
365 <tr>
366 <th>-</th>
367 <ti>Huge download</ti>
368 </tr>
369 </table>
370
371 </body>
372 </subsection>
373 </section>
374 <section>
375 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
376 <subsection>
377 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
378 <body>
379
380 <p>
381 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
382 wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
383 LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
384 find them?
385 </p>
386
387 <p>
388 Visit one of our <uri
389 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
390 <path>releases/sparc/2004.1/livecd</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
391 your choice are located. Inside the subdirectories <path>sparc32/</path> and
392 <path>sparc64/</path> you'll find so-called ISO-files.
393 Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
398 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
399 <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
400 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
401 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
402 </p>
403
404 <!--
405 <p>
406 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
407 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
408 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
412 $ <i>gpg - -keyserver pgp.mit.edu - -recv-keys 19462D47</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 <p>
416 Now verify the signature:
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
420 $ <i>gpg - -verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
421 <comment>(If everything goes well, you should see something like this:)</comment>
422 gpg: Signature made Mon Apr 19 18:54:40 2004 EDT using DSA key ID 19462D47
423 gpg: Good signature from "John Davis (Gentoo Linux Developer) &lt;zhen@gentoo.org&gt;"
424 gpg: aka "Gentoo Linux Release Engineering &lt;releng@gentoo.org&gt;"
425 </pre>
426 -->
427
428 <p>
429 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
430 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
431 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
432 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
433 </p>
434
435 <ul>
436 <li>
437 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
438 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
439 by the path to the ISO file :)
440 </li>
441 <li>
442 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
443 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
444 <c>Start</c>.
445 </li>
446 </ul>
447
448 </body>
449 </subsection>
450 <subsection>
451 <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
452 <body>
453
454 <p>
455 Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
456 press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
457 CD-ROM:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
461 ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
466 <c>gentoo-2.4</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>gentoo-2.4-smp</c>
467 (multi-CPU kernel) and press enter to continue booting the system. In the
468 following example we'll boot the <c>gentoo-2.4</c> kernel.
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
472 boot: <i>gentoo-2.4</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
477 <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
481 login: <i>root</i>
482 password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
483 </pre>
484
485 <p>
486 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
487 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
488 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
489 </p>
490
491 <p>
492 Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
493 </p>
494
495 </body>
496 </subsection>
497 <subsection id="hardware">
498 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
499 <body>
500
501 <p>
502 If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
503 appropriate kernel modules.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
508 certain kinds of network interfaces):
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
512 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 </body>
516 </subsection>
517 <subsection>
518 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
519 <body>
520
521 <p>
522 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
523 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
524 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
525 more precise impression):
526 </p>
527
528 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
529 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
530 </pre>
531
532 <p>
533 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
534 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
535 disk):
536 </p>
537
538 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
539 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
540 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
541 </pre>
542
543 </body>
544 </subsection>
545 <subsection>
546 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
547 <body>
548
549 <p>
550 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
551 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
552 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
553 the root password.
554 </p>
555
556 <p>
557 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
558 </p>
559
560 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
561 # <i>passwd</i>
562 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
563 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
564 </pre>
565
566 <p>
567 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
568 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
569 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
570 </p>
571
572 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
573 # <i>useradd john</i>
574 # <i>passwd john</i>
575 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
576 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
577 </pre>
578
579 <p>
580 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
581 <c>su</c>:
582 </p>
583
584 <pre caption="Changing user id">
585 # <i>su john -</i>
586 </pre>
587
588 </body>
589 </subsection>
590 <subsection>
591 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
592 <body>
593
594 <p>
595 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
596 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
597 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
598 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
599 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
600 </p>
601
602 <p>
603 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
604 </p>
605
606 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
607 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
608 </pre>
609
610 <p>
611 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
612 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
613 </p>
614
615 </body>
616 </subsection>
617 </section>
618 </sections>

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