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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.23 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.20</version>
12 <date>2004-11-04</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
23 architecture.
24 </p>
25
26 </body>
27 </subsection>
28 <subsection>
29 <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 Check the following requirements before you
34 continue with the Gentoo installation:
35 </p>
36
37 <ul>
38 <li>
39 You need at least 1 GB of free disk space
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 MB of memory (RAM +
43 swap)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
47 link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
48 </li>
49 </ul>
50
51 </body>
52 </subsection>
53 </section>
54 <section>
55 <title>Make your Choice</title>
56 <subsection>
57 <title>Introduction</title>
58 <body>
59
60 <p>
61 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
62 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
63 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
64 Gentoo base system.
65 </p>
66
67 <p>
68 The installation media we will describe are:
69 </p>
70
71 <ul>
72 <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
73 <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
74 </ul>
75
76 <p>
77 Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
78 the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
79 make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
80 three-stage installation.
81 </p>
82
83 </body>
84 </subsection>
85 <subsection>
86 <title>The Three Stages</title>
87 <body>
88
89 <p>
90 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
91 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
92 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
93 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
94 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
95 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
96 been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
97 Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
98 packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 Now what stage do you have to choose?
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
107 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
108 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
109 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
110 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
111 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
116 Internet connection.
117 </p>
118
119 <table>
120 <tr>
121 <th>Stage1</th>
122 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
123 </tr>
124 <tr>
125 <th>+</th>
126 <ti>
127 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
128 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
129 </ti>
130 </tr>
131 <tr>
132 <th>+</th>
133 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
134 </tr>
135 <tr>
136 <th>+</th>
137 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <th>-</th>
141 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
142 </tr>
143 <tr>
144 <th>-</th>
145 <ti>
146 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
147 </ti>
148 </tr>
149 <tr>
150 <th>-</th>
151 <ti>
152 Not suitable for networkless installations
153 </ti>
154 </tr>
155 </table>
156
157 <p>
158 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
159 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
160 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
165 Internet connection.
166 </p>
167
168 <table>
169 <tr>
170 <th>Stage2</th>
171 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
172 </tr>
173 <tr>
174 <th>+</th>
175 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
176 </tr>
177 <tr>
178 <th>+</th>
179 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
180 </tr>
181 <tr>
182 <th>+</th>
183 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
184 </tr>
185 <tr>
186 <th>-</th>
187 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
188 </tr>
189 <tr>
190 <th>-</th>
191 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
192 </tr>
193 <tr>
194 <th>-</th>
195 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
196 </tr>
197 <tr>
198 <th>-</th>
199 <ti>
200 Not suitable for networkless installations
201 </ti>
202 </tr>
203 </table>
204
205 <p>
206 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
207 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
208 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
209 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
210 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
211 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
212 </p>
213
214 <table>
215 <tr>
216 <th>Stage3</th>
217 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
218 </tr>
219 <tr>
220 <th>+</th>
221 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <th>+</th>
225 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
226 </tr>
227 <tr>
228 <th>-</th>
229 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
230 </tr>
231 <tr>
232 <th>-</th>
233 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
234 </tr>
235 </table>
236
237 <p>
238 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
239 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
240 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
241 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
242 with the new optimization settings.
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 Now take a look at the available installation media.
247 </p>
248
249 </body>
250 </subsection>
251 <subsection>
252 <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
253 <body>
254
255 <p>
256 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
257 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
258 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
259 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
264 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
265 LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
266 Gentoo without a working network configuration.
267 </p>
268
269 <p>
270 Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
271 </p>
272
273 </body>
274 </subsection>
275 <subsection>
276 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
277 <body>
278
279 <p>
280 This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
281 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
282 does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
283 source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
284 LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
285 <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.3.iso</c>.
286 </p>
287
288 <table>
289 <tr>
290 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
291 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
292 </tr>
293 <tr>
294 <th>+</th>
295 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
296 </tr>
297 <tr>
298 <th>+</th>
299 <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
300 </tr>
301 <tr>
302 <th>+</th>
303 <ti>
304 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
305 net
306 </ti>
307 </tr>
308 <tr>
309 <th>-</th>
310 <ti>
311 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
312 suitable for networkless installation
313 </ti>
314 </tr>
315 </table>
316
317 </body>
318 </subsection>
319 <subsection>
320 <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
321 <body>
322
323 <p>
324 Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
325 networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
326 sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
327 <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.3.iso</c> and can be found in the
328 <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
329 </p>
330
331 <p>
332 If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
333 that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
334 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
335 after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
336 need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
337 etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
338 CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
339 <c>packages-sparc64-2004.3.iso</c>.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
344 installation.
345 </p>
346
347 <table>
348 <tr>
349 <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
350 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
351 </tr>
352 <tr>
353 <th>+</th>
354 <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
355 </tr>
356 <tr>
357 <th>+</th>
358 <ti>
359 Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
360 </ti>
361 </tr>
362 <tr>
363 <th>+</th>
364 <ti>
365 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
366 connection.
367 </ti>
368 </tr>
369 <tr>
370 <th>-</th>
371 <ti>Huge download</ti>
372 </tr>
373 </table>
374
375 </body>
376 </subsection>
377 </section>
378 <section>
379 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
380 <subsection>
381 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
386 wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
387 LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
388 find them?
389 </p>
390
391 <p>
392 Visit one of our <uri
393 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
394 <path>releases/sparc/2004.3/livecd</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
395 your choice are located. Inside the subdirectories <path>sparc32/</path> and
396 <path>sparc64/</path> you'll find so-called ISO-files.
397 Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
398 </p>
399
400 <p>
401 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
402 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
403 <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.3.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
404 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
405 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
406 </p>
407
408 <p>
409 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
410 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
411 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
412 </p>
413
414 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
415 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
416 </pre>
417
418 <p>
419 Now verify the signature:
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
423 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
424 </pre>
425
426 <p>
427 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
428 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
429 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
430 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
431 </p>
432
433 <ul>
434 <li>
435 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
436 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
437 by the path to the ISO file :)
438 </li>
439 <li>
440 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
441 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
442 <c>Start</c>.
443 </li>
444 </ul>
445
446 </body>
447 </subsection>
448 <subsection>
449 <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
450 <body>
451
452 <p>
453 Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
454 press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
455 CD-ROM:
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
459 ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
460 </pre>
461
462 <p>
463 You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
464 <c>gentoo-2.4</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>gentoo-2.4-smp</c>
465 (multi-CPU kernel) and press enter to continue booting the system. In the
466 following example we'll boot the <c>gentoo-2.4</c> kernel.
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
470 boot: <i>gentoo-2.4</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
475 <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
479 login: <i>root</i>
480 password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
485 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
486 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
487 </p>
488
489 <p>
490 Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
491 </p>
492
493 </body>
494 </subsection>
495 <subsection id="hardware">
496 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
497 <body>
498
499 <p>
500 If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
501 appropriate kernel modules.
502 </p>
503
504 <p>
505 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
506 certain kinds of network interfaces):
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
510 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 </body>
514 </subsection>
515 <subsection>
516 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
517 <body>
518
519 <p>
520 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
521 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
522 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
523 more precise impression):
524 </p>
525
526 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
527 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
532 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
533 disk):
534 </p>
535
536 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
537 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
538 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
539 </pre>
540
541 </body>
542 </subsection>
543 <subsection id="useraccounts">
544 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
545 <body>
546
547 <p>
548 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
549 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
550 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
551 the root password.
552 </p>
553
554 <p>
555 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
556 </p>
557
558 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
559 # <i>passwd</i>
560 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
561 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
562 </pre>
563
564 <p>
565 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
566 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
567 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
568 </p>
569
570 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
571 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
572 # <i>passwd john</i>
573 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
574 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
575 </pre>
576
577 <p>
578 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
579 <c>su</c>:
580 </p>
581
582 <pre caption="Changing user id">
583 # <i>su - john</i>
584 </pre>
585
586 </body>
587 </subsection>
588 <subsection>
589 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
590 <body>
591
592 <p>
593 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
594 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
595 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
596 go to a new terminal and log in.
597 </p>
598
599 <p>
600 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
601 <c>links2</c> to read it:
602 </p>
603
604 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
605 # <i>links2 /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
606 </pre>
607
608 <p>
609 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
610 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links2</c>
611 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
612 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
613 document):
614 </p>
615
616 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
617 # <i>links2 http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml</i>
618 </pre>
619
620 <p>
621 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
622 </p>
623
624 </body>
625 </subsection>
626 <subsection>
627 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
628 <body>
629
630 <p>
631 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
632 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
633 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
634 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
635 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
636 </p>
637
638 <p>
639 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
640 </p>
641
642 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
643 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
644 </pre>
645
646 <p>
647 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
648 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
649 </p>
650
651 </body>
652 </subsection>
653 </section>
654 </sections>

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