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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-sparc-medium.xml,v 1.7 2004/04/19 13:49:53 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The SPARC Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39 swap)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 For the <e>SPARC architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43 link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#s_2">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
44 </li>
45 </ul>
46
47 </body>
48 </subsection>
49 </section>
50 <section>
51 <title>Make your Choice</title>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Introduction</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60 Gentoo base system.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 The installation media we will describe are:
65 </p>
66
67 <ul>
68 <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
69 <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
70 </ul>
71
72 <p>
73 Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
74 the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
75 make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
76 three-stage installation.
77 </p>
78
79 </body>
80 </subsection>
81 <subsection>
82 <title>The Three Stages</title>
83 <body>
84
85 <p>
86 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
87 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
88 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
89 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
90 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
91 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
92 been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
93 Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
94 packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 Now what stage do you have to choose?
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
103 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
104 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
105 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
106 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
107 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
108 </p>
109
110 <table>
111 <tr>
112 <th>Stage1</th>
113 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
114 </tr>
115 <tr>
116 <th>+</th>
117 <ti>
118 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
119 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
120 </ti>
121 </tr>
122 <tr>
123 <th>+</th>
124 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
125 </tr>
126 <tr>
127 <th>+</th>
128 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
129 </tr>
130 <tr>
131 <th>-</th>
132 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
133 </tr>
134 <tr>
135 <th>-</th>
136 <ti>
137 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
138 </ti>
139 </tr>
140 </table>
141
142 <p>
143 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
144 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
145 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
146 </p>
147
148 <table>
149 <tr>
150 <th>Stage2</th>
151 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
152 </tr>
153 <tr>
154 <th>+</th>
155 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
156 </tr>
157 <tr>
158 <th>+</th>
159 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
160 </tr>
161 <tr>
162 <th>+</th>
163 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
164 </tr>
165 <tr>
166 <th>-</th>
167 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
168 </tr>
169 <tr>
170 <th>-</th>
171 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
172 </tr>
173 <tr>
174 <th>-</th>
175 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
176 </tr>
177 </table>
178
179 <p>
180 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
181 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
182 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
183 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
184 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
185 prebuilt packages.
186 </p>
187
188 <table>
189 <tr>
190 <th>Stage3</th>
191 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
192 </tr>
193 <tr>
194 <th>+</th>
195 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
196 </tr>
197 <tr>
198 <th>-</th>
199 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
200 </tr>
201 <tr>
202 <th>-</th>
203 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
204 </tr>
205 </table>
206
207 <p>
208 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
209 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
210 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
211 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
212 with the new optimization settings.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 Now take a look at the available installation media.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </subsection>
221 <subsection>
222 <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
223 <body>
224
225 <p>
226 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
227 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
228 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
229 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
234 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
235 LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
236 Gentoo without a working network configuration.
237 </p>
238
239 <p>
240 Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
241 </p>
242
243 </body>
244 </subsection>
245 <subsection>
246 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
251 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
252 does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
253 source code or precompiled packages. For example the sparc64 variant of this
254 LiveCD can be found in the <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory and is called
255 <c>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
256 </p>
257
258 <table>
259 <tr>
260 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
261 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
262 </tr>
263 <tr>
264 <th>+</th>
265 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
266 </tr>
267 <tr>
268 <th>+</th>
269 <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
270 </tr>
271 <tr>
272 <th>+</th>
273 <ti>
274 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
275 net
276 </ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <th>-</th>
280 <ti>
281 Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
282 suitable for networkless installation
283 </ti>
284 </tr>
285 </table>
286
287 </body>
288 </subsection>
289 <subsection>
290 <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
291 <body>
292
293 <p>
294 Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
295 networking. It contains a stage1 and stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
296 sparc architecture). For example the sparc64 variant of this CD is called
297 <c>install-sparc64-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
298 <path>sparc64/</path> subdirectory.
299 </p>
300
301 <p>
302 If you take a closer look into the directories you will see
303 that we provide a <e>Gentoo Package CD</e>. This CD (which isn't
304 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
305 after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
306 need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
307 etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
308 CD too. Such a Packages CD for sparc64 is called
309 <c>packages-sparc64-2004.1.iso</c>.
310 </p>
311
312 <table>
313 <tr>
314 <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
315 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
316 </tr>
317 <tr>
318 <th>+</th>
319 <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
320 </tr>
321 <tr>
322 <th>+</th>
323 <ti>
324 Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
325 </ti>
326 </tr>
327 <tr>
328 <th>+</th>
329 <ti>
330 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
331 connection.
332 </ti>
333 </tr>
334 <tr>
335 <th>-</th>
336 <ti>Huge download</ti>
337 </tr>
338 </table>
339
340 </body>
341 </subsection>
342 </section>
343 <section>
344 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
345 <subsection>
346 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
347 <body>
348
349 <p>
350 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
351 wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
352 LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
353 find them?
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 Visit one of our <uri
358 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
359 <path>releases/sparc/2004.1/livecd</path> where the LiveCD(s) of
360 your choice are located. Inside the subdirectories <path>sparc32/</path> and
361 <path>sparc64/</path> you'll find so-called ISO-files.
362 Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
363 </p>
364
365 <p>
366 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
367 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
368 <path>install-sparc64-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
369 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
370 link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
371 </p>
372
373 <p>
374 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
375 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
376 tools on how to do this.
377 </p>
378
379 <ul>
380 <li>
381 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
382 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
383 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
384 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
385 </li>
386 <li>
387 With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
388 type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
389 will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
390 recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
391 following parameters:
392 <ul>
393 <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
394 <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
395 <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
396 <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
397 <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
398 </ul>
399 Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
400 </li>
401 <li>
402 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
403 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
404 by the path to the ISO file :)
405 </li>
406 <li>
407 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
408 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
409 <c>Start</c>.
410 </li>
411 </ul>
412
413 </body>
414 </subsection>
415 <subsection>
416 <title>Booting the SPARC LiveCD</title>
417 <body>
418
419 <p>
420 Insert the Gentoo LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot your system. During startup,
421 press Stop-A to enter OpenBootPROM (OBP). Once you are in the OBP, boot from the
422 CD-ROM:
423 </p>
424
425 <pre caption="Booting the LiveCD">
426 ok <i>boot cdrom</i>
427 </pre>
428
429 <p>
430 You will be greeted by the SILO boot manager (on the LiveCD). Type in
431 <c>gentoo-2.4</c> (single-CPU kernel) or <c>gentoo-2.4-smp</c>
432 (multi-CPU kernel) and press enter to continue booting the system. In the
433 following example we'll boot the <c>gentoo-2.4</c> kernel.
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Continue booting from the LiveCD">
437 boot: <i>gentoo-2.4</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 Once the LiveCD is booted, you will be greeted by a login prompt. Log on as
442 <c>root</c>. There is no password, so when you are asked for one, press Enter.
443 </p>
444
445 <pre caption="Logging on onto the LiveCD">
446 login: <i>root</i>
447 password: <comment>(Press Enter here)</comment>
448 </pre>
449
450 <p>
451 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
452 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
453 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
454 </p>
455
456 <p>
457 Continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
458 </p>
459
460 </body>
461 </subsection>
462 <subsection id="hardware">
463 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
464 <body>
465
466 <p>
467 If not all hardware is supported out-of-the-box, you will need to load the
468 appropriate kernel modules.
469 </p>
470
471 <p>
472 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
473 certain kinds of network interfaces):
474 </p>
475
476 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
477 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
478 </pre>
479
480 </body>
481 </subsection>
482 <subsection>
483 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
484 <body>
485
486 <p>
487 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
488 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
489 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
490 more precise impression):
491 </p>
492
493 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
494 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
495 </pre>
496
497 <p>
498 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
499 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
500 disk):
501 </p>
502
503 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
504 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
505 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 </body>
509 </subsection>
510 <subsection>
511 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
512 <body>
513
514 <p>
515 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
516 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
517 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
518 the root password.
519 </p>
520
521 <p>
522 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
523 </p>
524
525 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
526 # <i>passwd</i>
527 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
528 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
529 </pre>
530
531 <p>
532 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
533 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
534 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
535 </p>
536
537 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
538 # <i>useradd john</i>
539 # <i>passwd john</i>
540 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
541 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
542 </pre>
543
544 <p>
545 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
546 <c>su</c>:
547 </p>
548
549 <pre caption="Changing user id">
550 # <i>su john -</i>
551 </pre>
552
553 </body>
554 </subsection>
555 <subsection>
556 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
557 <body>
558
559 <p>
560 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
561 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
562 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
563 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
564 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
565 </p>
566
567 <p>
568 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
569 </p>
570
571 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
572 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
573 </pre>
574
575 <p>
576 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
577 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
578 </p>
579
580 </body>
581 </subsection>
582 </section>
583 </sections>

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