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general Qt USE flag cleanup

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 nightmorph 1.100 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.99 2006/09/17 12:16:59 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 nightmorph 1.100 <version>7.2</version>
12     <date>2006-10-08</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78 swift 1.43 <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84 swift 1.43 </p>
85    
86 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89 swift 1.43 </pre>
90    
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     <subsection>
94 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95 swift 1.1 <body>
96    
97     <p>
98 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103 swift 1.1 </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115     # <i>env-update</i>
116 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119 swift 1.1 </pre>
120    
121     <p>
122     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
125     </p>
126    
127     </body>
128 swift 1.3 </subsection>
129 swift 1.85 </section>
130    
131     <section>
132     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133 swift 1.3 <subsection>
134 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135 swift 1.2 <body>
136    
137     <p>
138 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139     --sync</c> does this for you.
140 swift 1.2 </p>
141    
142 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147 swift 1.13 </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152     you.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157 rane 1.94 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158 swift 1.13 </p>
159 swift 1.8
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162 swift 1.72 <subsection>
163     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164     <body>
165    
166     <p>
167     First, a small definition is in place.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174     Gentoo developers.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178 neysx 1.79 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
179     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
180     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
181 swift 1.83 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
182     available as well. We will talk about those later.
183 swift 1.72 </p>
184    
185     <p>
186 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
187 swift 1.72 </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
190 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
191 nightmorph 1.98 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
192 swift 1.72 </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195 neysx 1.80 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
196     profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
197     default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
198     </p>
199    
200     <p>
201 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
202     architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
203     one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
204     profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
205     </p>
206    
207     <p>
208 neysx 1.80 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
209     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
210     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
211 swift 1.72 </p>
212    
213     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
214 swift 1.86 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
215     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
216 swift 1.72 </pre>
217    
218     <p>
219 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
220     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
221     the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
222 swift 1.72 </p>
223    
224 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
225     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
226 swift 1.86 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
227 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
228     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
229     total 12
230     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
231     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
232     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
233 swift 1.72 </pre>
234    
235 swift 1.83 <p>
236 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
237 swift 1.83 </p>
238    
239     <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
240 josejx 1.91 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
241 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
242 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
243 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
244 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
245 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
246 swift 1.83 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
247 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
248 fox2mike 1.90 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
249 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
250 swift 1.83 </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
254 swift 1.83 </p>
255    
256     <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
257     <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
258 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
259 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
260 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
261 swift 1.83 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
262     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
263 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
264 swift 1.83 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
265 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
266 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
267 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
268 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
269 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
270 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
271 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
272 swift 1.83 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
273     </pre>
274    
275 swift 1.72 </body>
276     </subsection>
277 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
278 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
279     <body>
280    
281     <p>
282     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
283     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
284     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
285     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
286     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
287     (X-server).
288     </p>
289    
290     <p>
291     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
292     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
293 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
294 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
295     </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
299     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
300 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
301     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
302     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
303     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
304 swift 1.21 </p>
305    
306     <p>
307 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
308     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
309     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
310     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
311     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
312 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
313     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
314     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
315     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
316     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
317     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
318     </p>
319    
320     <p>
321     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
322 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
323     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
324 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
325     </p>
326    
327     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
328     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
329 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
330 swift 1.23 </pre>
331    
332     <p>
333     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
334     and CD Recording support:
335 swift 1.21 </p>
336    
337     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
338     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339     </pre>
340    
341     <pre caption="USE setting">
342 nightmorph 1.100 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
343 swift 1.21 </pre>
344    
345 swift 1.69 </body>
346     </subsection>
347     <subsection>
348     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
349     <body>
350    
351 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
352 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
353 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
354 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
355    
356 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
357     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
358 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
359    
360     <p>
361 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
362     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
363 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
364    
365 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
366     en_US ISO-8859-1
367     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
368     de_DE ISO-8859-1
369     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
370 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
371    
372 swift 1.67 <p>
373 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
374     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
375 swift 1.67 </p>
376    
377 rane 1.97 <note>
378     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
379     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
380     </note>
381    
382 swift 1.1 <p>
383 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
384 swift 1.28 </p>
385    
386     </body>
387     </subsection>
388     </section>
389 swift 1.3 </sections>

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