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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 neysx 1.101 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.100 2006/10/08 19:38:11 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.100 <version>7.2</version>
18     <date>2006-10-08</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34     </p>
35    
36     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38     </pre>
39    
40 swift 1.71 <warn>
41     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42     </warn>
43    
44 swift 1.70 <p>
45     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 swift 1.2 </pre>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     </body>
62 swift 1.3 </subsection>
63     <subsection>
64 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72     network.
73     </p>
74    
75     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
78 swift 1.18 </pre>
79    
80     </body>
81     </subsection>
82     <subsection>
83 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 swift 1.43 <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 swift 1.43 </p>
91    
92 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 swift 1.43 </pre>
96    
97     </body>
98     </subsection>
99     <subsection>
100 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
101 swift 1.1 <body>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
105 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
106 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
107 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
108 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
109 swift 1.1 </p>
110    
111     <p>
112     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
113 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
114     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
115     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
116 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
120     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
121     # <i>env-update</i>
122 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
123 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
124 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
125 swift 1.1 </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
129 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
130 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
131     </p>
132    
133     </body>
134 swift 1.3 </subsection>
135 swift 1.85 </section>
136    
137     <section>
138     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
139 swift 1.3 <subsection>
140 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
141 swift 1.2 <body>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
145     --sync</c> does this for you.
146 swift 1.2 </p>
147    
148 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
149 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
150 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
151     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
152     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
153 swift 1.13 </pre>
154    
155     <p>
156 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
157     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
158     you.
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
163 rane 1.94 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
164 swift 1.13 </p>
165 swift 1.8
166     </body>
167     </subsection>
168 swift 1.72 <subsection>
169     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
170     <body>
171    
172     <p>
173     First, a small definition is in place.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
178     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
179     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
180     Gentoo developers.
181     </p>
182    
183     <p>
184 neysx 1.79 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
185     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
186     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
187 swift 1.83 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
188     available as well. We will talk about those later.
189 swift 1.72 </p>
190    
191     <p>
192 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
193 swift 1.72 </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
196 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
197 nightmorph 1.98 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
198 swift 1.72 </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201 neysx 1.80 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
202     profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
203     default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
204     </p>
205    
206     <p>
207 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
208     architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
209     one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
210     profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
211     </p>
212    
213     <p>
214 neysx 1.80 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
215     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
216     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
217 swift 1.72 </p>
218    
219     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
220 swift 1.86 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
221     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
222 swift 1.72 </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
226     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
227     the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
228 swift 1.72 </p>
229    
230 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
231     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
232 swift 1.86 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
233 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
234     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
235     total 12
236     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
237     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
238     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
239 swift 1.72 </pre>
240    
241 swift 1.83 <p>
242 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
243 swift 1.83 </p>
244    
245     <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
246 josejx 1.91 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
247 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
248 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
249 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
250 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
251 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
252 swift 1.83 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
253 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
254 fox2mike 1.90 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
255 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
256 swift 1.83 </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
260 swift 1.83 </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
263     <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
264 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
265 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
266 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
267 swift 1.83 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
268     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
269 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
270 swift 1.83 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
271 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
272 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
273 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
274 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
275 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
276 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
277 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
278 swift 1.83 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
279     </pre>
280    
281 swift 1.72 </body>
282     </subsection>
283 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
284 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
285     <body>
286    
287     <p>
288     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
289     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
290     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
291     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
292     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
293     (X-server).
294     </p>
295    
296     <p>
297     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
298     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
299 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
300 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
301     </p>
302    
303     <p>
304     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
305     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
306 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
307     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
308     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
309     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
310 swift 1.21 </p>
311    
312     <p>
313 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
314     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
315     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
316     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
317     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
318 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
319     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
320     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
321     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
322     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
323     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
324     </p>
325    
326     <p>
327     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
328 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
329     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
330 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
331     </p>
332    
333     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
334     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
335 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
336 swift 1.23 </pre>
337    
338     <p>
339     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
340     and CD Recording support:
341 swift 1.21 </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
344     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <pre caption="USE setting">
348 nightmorph 1.100 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
349 swift 1.21 </pre>
350    
351 swift 1.69 </body>
352     </subsection>
353     <subsection>
354     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
355     <body>
356    
357 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
358 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
359 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
360 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
361    
362 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
363     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
364 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
365    
366     <p>
367 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
368     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
369 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
370    
371 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
372     en_US ISO-8859-1
373     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
374     de_DE ISO-8859-1
375     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
376 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
377    
378 swift 1.67 <p>
379 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
380     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
381 swift 1.67 </p>
382    
383 rane 1.97 <note>
384     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
385     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
386     </note>
387    
388 swift 1.1 <p>
389 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
390 swift 1.28 </p>
391    
392     </body>
393     </subsection>
394     </section>
395 swift 1.3 </sections>

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