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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 nightmorph 1.102 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.101 2006/10/28 09:17:55 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.102 <version>7.4</version>
18     <date>2006-11-01</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34     </p>
35    
36     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38     </pre>
39    
40 swift 1.71 <warn>
41     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42     </warn>
43    
44 swift 1.70 <p>
45     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 swift 1.2 </pre>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     </body>
62 swift 1.3 </subsection>
63     <subsection>
64 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72     network.
73     </p>
74    
75     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
78 swift 1.18 </pre>
79    
80     </body>
81     </subsection>
82     <subsection>
83 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 swift 1.43 <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 swift 1.43 </p>
91    
92 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 swift 1.43 </pre>
96    
97     </body>
98     </subsection>
99     <subsection>
100 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
101 swift 1.1 <body>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
105 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
106 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
107 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
108 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
109 swift 1.1 </p>
110    
111     <p>
112     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
113 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
114     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
115     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
116 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
120     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
121     # <i>env-update</i>
122 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
123 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
124 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
125 swift 1.1 </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
129 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
130 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
131     </p>
132    
133     </body>
134 swift 1.3 </subsection>
135 swift 1.85 </section>
136    
137     <section>
138     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
139 swift 1.3 <subsection>
140 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
141 swift 1.2 <body>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
145     --sync</c> does this for you.
146 swift 1.2 </p>
147    
148 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
149 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
150 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
151     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
152     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
153 swift 1.13 </pre>
154    
155     <p>
156 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
157     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
158     you.
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
163 rane 1.94 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
164 swift 1.13 </p>
165 swift 1.8
166     </body>
167     </subsection>
168 swift 1.72 <subsection>
169     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
170     <body>
171    
172     <p>
173     First, a small definition is in place.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
178     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
179     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
180     Gentoo developers.
181     </p>
182    
183 nightmorph 1.102 <p test="contains('Alpha x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
184     Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, <keyval
185     id="arch"/> users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
186 neysx 1.79 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
187 nightmorph 1.102 of the 2.6 kernels.
188     </p>
189    
190     <p test="contains('AMD64 arm HPPA IA64 MIPS PPC PPC64 SPARC', func:keyval('arch'))">
191     Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
192     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
193 swift 1.72 </p>
194    
195     <p>
196 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
197 swift 1.72 </p>
198    
199     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
200 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
201 nightmorph 1.98 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
202 swift 1.72 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205 nightmorph 1.102 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
206     recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
207 neysx 1.80 </p>
208    
209     <p>
210 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
211     architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
212     one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
213     profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
214     </p>
215    
216     <p>
217 neysx 1.80 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
218     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
219     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
220 swift 1.72 </p>
221    
222     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
223 swift 1.86 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
224     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
225 swift 1.72 </pre>
226    
227     <p>
228 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
229     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
230 nightmorph 1.102 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so as follows:
231 swift 1.72 </p>
232    
233 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
234     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
235 swift 1.86 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
236 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
237     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
238     total 12
239     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
240     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
241     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
242 swift 1.72 </pre>
243    
244 nightmorph 1.102 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
245 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
246 swift 1.83 </p>
247    
248 nightmorph 1.102 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'" caption="PPC Profiles">
249 josejx 1.91 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
250 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
251 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
252 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
253 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
254 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
255 swift 1.83 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
256 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
257 fox2mike 1.90 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
258 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
259 swift 1.83 </pre>
260    
261 nightmorph 1.102 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
262 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
263 swift 1.83 </p>
264    
265 nightmorph 1.102 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'" caption="PPC64 Profiles">
266 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
267 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
268 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
269 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
270 swift 1.83 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
271     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
272 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
273 swift 1.83 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
274 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
275 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
276 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
277 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
278 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
279 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
280 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
281 swift 1.83 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
282     </pre>
283    
284 swift 1.72 </body>
285     </subsection>
286 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
287 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
288     <body>
289    
290     <p>
291     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
292     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
293     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
294     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
295     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
296     (X-server).
297     </p>
298    
299     <p>
300     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
301     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
302 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
303 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
304     </p>
305    
306     <p>
307     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
308     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
309 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
310     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
311     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
312     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
313 swift 1.21 </p>
314    
315     <p>
316 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
317     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
318     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
319     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
320     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
321 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
322     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
323     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
324     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
325     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
326     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
327     </p>
328    
329     <p>
330     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
331 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
332     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
333 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
334     </p>
335    
336     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
337     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
338 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
339 swift 1.23 </pre>
340    
341     <p>
342     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
343     and CD Recording support:
344 swift 1.21 </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
347     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
348     </pre>
349    
350     <pre caption="USE setting">
351 nightmorph 1.100 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
352 swift 1.21 </pre>
353    
354 swift 1.69 </body>
355     </subsection>
356     <subsection>
357     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
358     <body>
359    
360 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
361 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
362 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
363 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
364    
365 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
366     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
367 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
368    
369     <p>
370 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
371     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
372 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
373    
374 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
375     en_US ISO-8859-1
376     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
377     de_DE ISO-8859-1
378     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
379 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
380    
381 swift 1.67 <p>
382 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
383     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
384 swift 1.67 </p>
385    
386 rane 1.97 <note>
387     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
388     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
389     </note>
390    
391 swift 1.1 <p>
392 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
393 swift 1.28 </p>
394    
395     </body>
396     </subsection>
397     </section>
398 swift 1.3 </sections>

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