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Revision 1.103 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Thu Nov 2 07:27:24 2006 UTC (7 years, 10 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.102: +11 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Added grub-static for non-multilib systems, as well as added an AMD64-specific example for switching to a non-multilib profile, bug 79936

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 nightmorph 1.103 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.102 2006/11/01 21:40:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.103 <version>7.5</version>
18 nightmorph 1.102 <date>2006-11-01</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34     </p>
35    
36     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38     </pre>
39    
40 swift 1.71 <warn>
41     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42     </warn>
43    
44 swift 1.70 <p>
45     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 swift 1.2 </pre>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     </body>
62 swift 1.3 </subsection>
63     <subsection>
64 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72     network.
73     </p>
74    
75     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
78 swift 1.18 </pre>
79    
80     </body>
81     </subsection>
82     <subsection>
83 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 swift 1.43 <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 swift 1.43 </p>
91    
92 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 swift 1.43 </pre>
96    
97     </body>
98     </subsection>
99     <subsection>
100 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
101 swift 1.1 <body>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
105 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
106 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
107 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
108 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
109 swift 1.1 </p>
110    
111     <p>
112     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
113 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
114     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
115     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
116 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
120     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
121     # <i>env-update</i>
122 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
123 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
124 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
125 swift 1.1 </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
129 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
130 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
131     </p>
132    
133     </body>
134 swift 1.3 </subsection>
135 swift 1.85 </section>
136    
137     <section>
138     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
139 swift 1.3 <subsection>
140 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
141 swift 1.2 <body>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
145     --sync</c> does this for you.
146 swift 1.2 </p>
147    
148 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
149 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
150 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
151     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
152     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
153 swift 1.13 </pre>
154    
155     <p>
156 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
157     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
158     you.
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
163 rane 1.94 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
164 swift 1.13 </p>
165 swift 1.8
166     </body>
167     </subsection>
168 swift 1.72 <subsection>
169     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
170     <body>
171    
172     <p>
173     First, a small definition is in place.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
178     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
179     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
180     Gentoo developers.
181     </p>
182    
183 nightmorph 1.102 <p test="contains('Alpha x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
184     Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, <keyval
185     id="arch"/> users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
186 neysx 1.79 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
187 nightmorph 1.102 of the 2.6 kernels.
188     </p>
189    
190     <p test="contains('AMD64 arm HPPA IA64 MIPS PPC PPC64 SPARC', func:keyval('arch'))">
191     Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
192     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
193 swift 1.72 </p>
194    
195     <p>
196 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
197 swift 1.72 </p>
198    
199     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
200 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
201 nightmorph 1.98 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
202 swift 1.72 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205 nightmorph 1.102 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
206     recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
207 neysx 1.80 </p>
208    
209     <p>
210 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
211     architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
212     one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
213     profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
214     </p>
215    
216 nightmorph 1.103 <p test="func:keyval('arch')=AMD64'">
217     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
218     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
219     </p>
220    
221     <pre test="func:keyval('arch')=AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
222     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/amd64/2006.1/no-multilib /etc/make.profile</i>
223     </pre>
224    
225 nightmorph 1.99 <p>
226 neysx 1.80 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
227     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
228     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
229 swift 1.72 </p>
230    
231     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
232 swift 1.86 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
233     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
234 swift 1.72 </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
238     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
239 nightmorph 1.102 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so as follows:
240 swift 1.72 </p>
241    
242 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
243     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
244 swift 1.86 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
245 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
246     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
247     total 12
248     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
249     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
250     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
251 swift 1.72 </pre>
252    
253 nightmorph 1.102 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
254 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
255 swift 1.83 </p>
256    
257 nightmorph 1.102 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'" caption="PPC Profiles">
258 josejx 1.91 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
259 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
260 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
261 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
262 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
263 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
264 swift 1.83 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
265 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
266 fox2mike 1.90 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
267 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
268 swift 1.83 </pre>
269    
270 nightmorph 1.102 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
271 nightmorph 1.99 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
272 swift 1.83 </p>
273    
274 nightmorph 1.102 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'" caption="PPC64 Profiles">
275 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
276 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
277 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
278 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
279 swift 1.83 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
280     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
281 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
282 swift 1.83 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
283 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
284 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
285 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
286 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
287 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
288 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
289 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
290 swift 1.83 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
291     </pre>
292    
293 swift 1.72 </body>
294     </subsection>
295 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
296 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <p>
300     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
301     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
302     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
303     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
304     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
305     (X-server).
306     </p>
307    
308     <p>
309     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
310     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
311 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
312 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
313     </p>
314    
315     <p>
316     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
317     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
318 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
319     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
320     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
321     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
322 swift 1.21 </p>
323    
324     <p>
325 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
326     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
327     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
328     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
329     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
330 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
331     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
332     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
333     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
334     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
335     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
336     </p>
337    
338     <p>
339     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
340 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
341     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
342 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
343     </p>
344    
345     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
346     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
347 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
348 swift 1.23 </pre>
349    
350     <p>
351     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
352     and CD Recording support:
353 swift 1.21 </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
356     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
357     </pre>
358    
359     <pre caption="USE setting">
360 nightmorph 1.100 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
361 swift 1.21 </pre>
362    
363 swift 1.69 </body>
364     </subsection>
365     <subsection>
366     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
367     <body>
368    
369 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
370 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
371 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
372 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
373    
374 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
375     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
376 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
377    
378     <p>
379 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
380     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
381 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
382    
383 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
384     en_US ISO-8859-1
385     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
386     de_DE ISO-8859-1
387     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
388 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
389    
390 swift 1.67 <p>
391 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
392     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
393 swift 1.67 </p>
394    
395 rane 1.97 <note>
396     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
397     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
398     </note>
399    
400 swift 1.1 <p>
401 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
402 swift 1.28 </p>
403    
404     </body>
405     </subsection>
406     </section>
407 swift 1.3 </sections>

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