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Made profile displayed by "ls -FGg /etc/make.profile" match default from stage3

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 neysx 1.108 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.107 2007/07/27 06:26:38 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 neysx 1.108 <version>8.2</version>
18     <date>2007-10-24</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34     </p>
35    
36     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38     </pre>
39    
40 swift 1.71 <warn>
41     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42     </warn>
43    
44 swift 1.70 <p>
45     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 swift 1.2 </pre>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     </body>
62 swift 1.3 </subsection>
63     <subsection>
64 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72     network.
73     </p>
74    
75     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
78 swift 1.18 </pre>
79    
80     </body>
81     </subsection>
82 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
83 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 swift 1.43 <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 swift 1.43 </p>
91    
92 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 swift 1.43 </pre>
96    
97     </body>
98     </subsection>
99 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
100     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
101     <body>
102    
103     <p>
104     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
105     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
106     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
107     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
108     </p>
109    
110     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
111     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
112     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
113     # <i>mount -o bind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
114     </pre>
115    
116     </body>
117     </subsection>
118 swift 1.43 <subsection>
119 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
120 swift 1.1 <body>
121    
122     <p>
123 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
124 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
125 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
126 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
127 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
128 swift 1.1 </p>
129    
130     <p>
131     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
132 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
133     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
134     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
135 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
139     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
140     # <i>env-update</i>
141 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
142 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
143 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
144 swift 1.1 </pre>
145    
146     <p>
147     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
148 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
149 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
150     </p>
151    
152     </body>
153 swift 1.3 </subsection>
154 swift 1.85 </section>
155    
156     <section>
157     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
158 swift 1.3 <subsection>
159 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
160 swift 1.2 <body>
161    
162     <p>
163 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
164     --sync</c> does this for you.
165 swift 1.2 </p>
166    
167 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
168 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
169 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
170     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
171     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
172 swift 1.13 </pre>
173    
174     <p>
175 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
176     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
177     you.
178     </p>
179    
180     <p>
181 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
182 rane 1.94 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
183 swift 1.13 </p>
184 swift 1.8
185     </body>
186     </subsection>
187 swift 1.72 <subsection>
188     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     First, a small definition is in place.
193     </p>
194    
195     <p>
196     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
197     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
198     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
199     Gentoo developers.
200     </p>
201    
202 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
203 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
204     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
205 swift 1.72 </p>
206    
207     <p>
208 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
209 swift 1.72 </p>
210    
211     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
212 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
213 neysx 1.108 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/<keyval id="profile"/>
214 swift 1.72 </pre>
215    
216     <p>
217 nightmorph 1.102 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
218     recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
219 neysx 1.80 </p>
220    
221     <p>
222 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
223 nightmorph 1.106 architectures. Look inside the <path>2007.0/</path> profile to see if there is
224 nightmorph 1.99 one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
225     profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
226     </p>
227    
228     <p>
229 nightmorph 1.106 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture in
230     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, you can use a different one if you wish:
231 swift 1.72 </p>
232    
233 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
234     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/&lt;profile name&gt; /etc/make.profile</i>
235 swift 1.72 </pre>
236    
237 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
238     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
239     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
240 swift 1.72 </p>
241    
242 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
243     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/amd64/2007.0/no-multilib /etc/make.profile</i>
244 swift 1.83 </pre>
245    
246 swift 1.72 </body>
247     </subsection>
248 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
249 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
250     <body>
251    
252     <p>
253     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
254     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
255     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
256     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
257     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
258     (X-server).
259     </p>
260    
261     <p>
262     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
263     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
264 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
265 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
266     </p>
267    
268     <p>
269     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
270     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
271 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
272     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
273     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
274     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
275 swift 1.21 </p>
276    
277     <p>
278 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
279     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
280     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
281     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
282     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
283 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
284     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
285     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
286     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
287     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
288     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
289     </p>
290    
291     <p>
292     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
293 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
294     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
295 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
296     </p>
297    
298     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
299     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
300 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
301 swift 1.23 </pre>
302    
303     <p>
304     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
305     and CD Recording support:
306 swift 1.21 </p>
307    
308     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
309     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
310     </pre>
311    
312     <pre caption="USE setting">
313 nightmorph 1.100 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
314 swift 1.21 </pre>
315    
316 swift 1.69 </body>
317     </subsection>
318     <subsection>
319 nightmorph 1.106 <title>Optional: glibc Locales</title>
320 swift 1.69 <body>
321    
322 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
323 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
324 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
325 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
326    
327 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
328     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
329 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
330    
331     <p>
332 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
333     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
334 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
335    
336 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
337     en_US ISO-8859-1
338     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
339     de_DE ISO-8859-1
340     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
341 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
342    
343 swift 1.67 <p>
344 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
345     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
346 swift 1.67 </p>
347    
348 swift 1.1 <p>
349 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
350 swift 1.28 </p>
351    
352     </body>
353     </subsection>
354     </section>
355 swift 1.3 </sections>

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