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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 nightmorph 1.115 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.114 2010/05/28 03:50:07 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.115 <version>10.3</version>
18     <date>2010-06-07</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34     </p>
35    
36     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38     </pre>
39    
40 nightmorph 1.114 <warn test="contains('Alpha IA64 PPC64', func:keyval('arch'))">
41 swift 1.71 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42     </warn>
43    
44 swift 1.70 <p>
45     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 swift 1.2 </pre>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
62     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
63     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
64     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
65     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
66     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
67     specific mirror is offline.
68     </note>
69    
70 swift 1.2 </body>
71 swift 1.3 </subsection>
72     <subsection>
73 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
74     <body>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
78     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
79 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
80     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
81     network.
82     </p>
83    
84     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
85 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
86 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
87 swift 1.18 </pre>
88    
89     </body>
90     </subsection>
91 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
92 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
93 swift 1.43 <body>
94    
95     <p>
96     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
97 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
98     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
99 swift 1.43 </p>
100    
101 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
102 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
103 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
104 swift 1.43 </pre>
105    
106     </body>
107     </subsection>
108 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
109     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
110     <body>
111    
112     <p>
113     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
114     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
115     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
116     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
120     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
121     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
122     # <i>mount -o bind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
123     </pre>
124    
125     </body>
126     </subsection>
127 swift 1.43 <subsection>
128 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
129 swift 1.1 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
133 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
134 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
135 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
136 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
137 swift 1.1 </p>
138    
139     <p>
140     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
141 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
142     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
143     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
144 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
145     </p>
146    
147     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
148     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
149     # <i>env-update</i>
150 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
151 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
152 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
153 swift 1.1 </pre>
154    
155     <p>
156     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
157 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
158 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
159     </p>
160    
161     </body>
162 swift 1.3 </subsection>
163 swift 1.85 </section>
164    
165     <section>
166     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
167 swift 1.3 <subsection>
168 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
169 swift 1.2 <body>
170    
171     <p>
172 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
173     --sync</c> does this for you.
174 swift 1.2 </p>
175    
176 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
177 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
178 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
179     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
180     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
181 swift 1.13 </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
185     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
186     you.
187     </p>
188    
189     <p>
190 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
191 nightmorph 1.110 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
192 swift 1.13 </p>
193 swift 1.8
194     </body>
195     </subsection>
196 swift 1.72 <subsection>
197     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
198     <body>
199    
200     <p>
201     First, a small definition is in place.
202     </p>
203    
204     <p>
205     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
206 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
207 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
208     Gentoo developers.
209     </p>
210    
211 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
212 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
213     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
214 swift 1.72 </p>
215    
216     <p>
217 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
218 swift 1.72 </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
221 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
222     Available profile symlink targets:
223     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
224     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
225     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
226 swift 1.72 </pre>
227    
228     <p>
229 nightmorph 1.102 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
230     recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
231 neysx 1.80 </p>
232    
233     <p>
234 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
235 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
236     profiles.
237 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
238    
239     <p>
240 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
241     different one if you wish:
242 swift 1.72 </p>
243    
244 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
245 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
246 swift 1.72 </pre>
247    
248 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
249     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
250     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
251 swift 1.72 </p>
252    
253 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
254 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
255     Available profile symlink targets:
256     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
257     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
258     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
259     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
260     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
261     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
262     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
263     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
264     Available profile symlink targets:
265     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
266     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
267     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
268     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
269 swift 1.83 </pre>
270    
271 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
272     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
273     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
274     </note>
275    
276 swift 1.72 </body>
277     </subsection>
278 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
279 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
280     <body>
281    
282     <p>
283     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
284     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
285     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
286     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
287     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
288     (X-server).
289     </p>
290    
291     <p>
292     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
293     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
294 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
295 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
296     </p>
297    
298     <p>
299     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
300     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
301 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
302 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
303 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
304     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
305 swift 1.21 </p>
306    
307     <p>
308 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
309     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
310     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
311     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
312     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
313 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
314     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
315     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
316     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
317     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
318     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
319     </p>
320    
321     <p>
322     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
323 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
324     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
325 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
326     </p>
327    
328     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
329     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
330 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
331 swift 1.23 </pre>
332    
333     <p>
334     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
335     and CD Recording support:
336 swift 1.21 </p>
337    
338     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
339     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
340     </pre>
341    
342     <pre caption="USE setting">
343 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
344 swift 1.21 </pre>
345    
346 swift 1.69 </body>
347     </subsection>
348     <subsection>
349 nightmorph 1.106 <title>Optional: glibc Locales</title>
350 swift 1.69 <body>
351    
352 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
353 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
354 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
355 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
356    
357 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
358     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
359 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
360    
361     <p>
362 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
363     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
364 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
365    
366 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
367     en_US ISO-8859-1
368     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
369     de_DE ISO-8859-1
370     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
371 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
372    
373 swift 1.67 <p>
374 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
375     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
376 swift 1.67 </p>
377    
378 swift 1.1 <p>
379 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
380 swift 1.28 </p>
381    
382     </body>
383     </subsection>
384     </section>
385 swift 1.3 </sections>

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