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ppc64 now supports selecting ipv6 mirrors, so removed the last warning. bug 321713.

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 nightmorph 1.117 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.116 2010/06/13 12:02:53 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 nightmorph 1.117 <version>10.5</version>
18     <date>2010-11-14</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34     </p>
35    
36     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38     </pre>
39    
40     <p>
41     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
42     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
43     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
44     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
45     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
46 swift 1.2 </p>
47    
48 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
49     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
50 swift 1.2 </pre>
51    
52     <p>
53 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
54     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
55 swift 1.2 </p>
56    
57 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
58     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
59     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
60     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
61     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
62     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
63     specific mirror is offline.
64     </note>
65    
66 swift 1.2 </body>
67 swift 1.3 </subsection>
68     <subsection>
69 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
70     <body>
71    
72     <p>
73 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
74     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
75 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
76     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
77     network.
78     </p>
79    
80     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
81 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
82 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
83 swift 1.18 </pre>
84    
85     </body>
86     </subsection>
87 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
88 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
89 swift 1.43 <body>
90    
91     <p>
92     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
93 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
94     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
95 swift 1.43 </p>
96    
97 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
98 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
99 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
100 swift 1.43 </pre>
101    
102     </body>
103     </subsection>
104 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
105     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
106     <body>
107    
108     <p>
109     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
110     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
111     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
112     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
113     </p>
114    
115     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
116     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
117     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
118     # <i>mount -o bind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
119     </pre>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123 swift 1.43 <subsection>
124 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
125 swift 1.1 <body>
126    
127     <p>
128 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
129 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
130 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
131 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
132 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
133 swift 1.1 </p>
134    
135     <p>
136     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
137 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
138     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
139     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
140 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
141     </p>
142    
143     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
144     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
145     # <i>env-update</i>
146 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
147 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
148 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
149 swift 1.1 </pre>
150    
151     <p>
152     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
153 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
154 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
155     </p>
156    
157     </body>
158 swift 1.3 </subsection>
159 swift 1.85 </section>
160    
161     <section>
162     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
163 swift 1.3 <subsection>
164 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
165 swift 1.2 <body>
166    
167     <p>
168 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
169     --sync</c> does this for you.
170 swift 1.2 </p>
171    
172 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
173 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
174 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
175     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
176     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
177 swift 1.13 </pre>
178    
179     <p>
180 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
181     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
182     you.
183     </p>
184    
185     <p>
186 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
187 nightmorph 1.110 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
188 swift 1.13 </p>
189 swift 1.8
190     </body>
191     </subsection>
192 swift 1.72 <subsection>
193     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     First, a small definition is in place.
198     </p>
199    
200     <p>
201     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
202 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
203 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
204     Gentoo developers.
205     </p>
206    
207 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
208 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
209     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
210 swift 1.72 </p>
211    
212     <p>
213 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
214 swift 1.72 </p>
215    
216     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
217 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
218     Available profile symlink targets:
219     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
220     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
221     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
222 swift 1.72 </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225 nightmorph 1.102 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
226     recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
227 neysx 1.80 </p>
228    
229     <p>
230 nightmorph 1.99 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
231 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
232     profiles.
233 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
234    
235     <p>
236 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
237     different one if you wish:
238 swift 1.72 </p>
239    
240 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
241 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
242 swift 1.72 </pre>
243    
244 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
245     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
246     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
247 swift 1.72 </p>
248    
249 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
250 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
251     Available profile symlink targets:
252     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
253     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
254     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
255     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
256     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
257     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
258     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
259     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
260     Available profile symlink targets:
261     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
262     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
263     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
264     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
265 swift 1.83 </pre>
266    
267 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
268     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
269     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
270     </note>
271    
272 swift 1.72 </body>
273     </subsection>
274 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
275 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
276     <body>
277    
278     <p>
279     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
280     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
281     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
282     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
283     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
284     (X-server).
285     </p>
286    
287     <p>
288     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
289     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
290 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
291 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
292     </p>
293    
294     <p>
295     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
296     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
297 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
298 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
299 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
300     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
301 swift 1.21 </p>
302    
303     <p>
304 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
305     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
306     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
307     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
308     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
309 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
310     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
311     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
312     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
313     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
314     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
315     </p>
316    
317     <p>
318     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
319 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
320     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
321 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
322     </p>
323    
324     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
325     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
326 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
327 swift 1.23 </pre>
328    
329     <p>
330     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
331     and CD Recording support:
332 swift 1.21 </p>
333    
334     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
335     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
336     </pre>
337    
338     <pre caption="USE setting">
339 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
340 swift 1.21 </pre>
341    
342 swift 1.69 </body>
343     </subsection>
344     <subsection>
345 nightmorph 1.106 <title>Optional: glibc Locales</title>
346 swift 1.69 <body>
347    
348 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
349 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
350 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
351 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
352    
353 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
354     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
355 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
356    
357     <p>
358 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
359     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
360 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
361    
362 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
363     en_US ISO-8859-1
364     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
365     de_DE ISO-8859-1
366     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
367 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
368    
369 swift 1.67 <p>
370 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
371     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
372 swift 1.67 </p>
373    
374 swift 1.1 <p>
375 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
376 swift 1.28 </p>
377    
378     </body>
379     </subsection>
380     </section>
381 swift 1.3 </sections>

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