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Using emerge-webrsync as primary method for installing a Portage tree during installation

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 swift 1.126 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.125 2012/07/24 12:12:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 swift 1.126 <version>18</version>
18     <date>2012-12-08</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 jkt 1.119 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34     navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35     mirrors.
36 swift 1.70 </p>
37    
38     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 swift 1.70 </pre>
41    
42     <p>
43     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 swift 1.2 </p>
49    
50 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 swift 1.2 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 swift 1.125 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 swift 1.2 </p>
58    
59 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
60     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65     specific mirror is offline.
66     </note>
67    
68 swift 1.2 </body>
69 swift 1.3 </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79     network.
80     </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 swift 1.18 </pre>
86    
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
90 swift 1.124 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 swift 1.43 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94 jkt 1.119 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95     make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96     systems available there as well.
97     </p>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.43 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 swift 1.124 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 swift 1.43 </p>
105    
106 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 swift 1.124 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 swift 1.43 </pre>
111    
112     </body>
113     </subsection>
114 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
115     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
116     <body>
117    
118     <p>
119     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
120     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
121     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
122     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
126     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
128     # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
129 nightmorph 1.105 </pre>
130    
131     </body>
132     </subsection>
133 swift 1.43 <subsection>
134 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
135 swift 1.1 <body>
136    
137     <p>
138 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
139 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
140 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
141 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
142 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
143 swift 1.1 </p>
144    
145     <p>
146     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
147 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
148     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
149     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
150 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
151     </p>
152    
153     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
154     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
155     # <i>env-update</i>
156 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
157 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
158 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
159 swift 1.1 </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
163 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
164 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
165     </p>
166    
167 swift 1.123 <p>
168     If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
169     environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
170     </p>
171    
172 swift 1.1 </body>
173 swift 1.3 </subsection>
174 swift 1.85 </section>
175    
176     <section>
177     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
178 swift 1.3 <subsection>
179 swift 1.126 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
180 swift 1.2 <body>
181    
182     <p>
183 swift 1.126 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
184     --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
185     you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
186 swift 1.2 </p>
187    
188 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
189 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
190 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
191     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
192     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
193 swift 1.13 </pre>
194    
195     <p>
196 swift 1.126 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
197     step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
198 swift 1.75 </p>
199    
200     <p>
201 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
202 nightmorph 1.110 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
203 swift 1.13 </p>
204 swift 1.8
205     </body>
206     </subsection>
207 swift 1.72 <subsection>
208     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
209     <body>
210    
211     <p>
212     First, a small definition is in place.
213     </p>
214    
215     <p>
216     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
217 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
218 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
219     Gentoo developers.
220     </p>
221    
222 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
223 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
224     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
225 swift 1.72 </p>
226    
227     <p>
228 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
229 swift 1.72 </p>
230    
231     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
232 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
233     Available profile symlink targets:
234     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
235     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
236     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
237 swift 1.72 </pre>
238    
239     <p>
240 swift 1.122 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
241 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
242     profiles.
243 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
244    
245     <p>
246 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
247     different one if you wish:
248 swift 1.72 </p>
249    
250 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
251 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
252 swift 1.72 </pre>
253    
254 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
255     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
256     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
257 swift 1.72 </p>
258    
259 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
260 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
261     Available profile symlink targets:
262     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
263     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
264     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
265     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
266     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
267     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
268     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
269     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
270     Available profile symlink targets:
271     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
272     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
273     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
274     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
275 swift 1.83 </pre>
276    
277 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
278     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
279     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
280     </note>
281    
282 swift 1.72 </body>
283     </subsection>
284 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
285 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
290     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
291     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
292     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
293     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
294     (X-server).
295     </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
299     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
300 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
301 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
302     </p>
303    
304     <p>
305     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
306     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
307 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
308 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
309 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
310     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
311 swift 1.21 </p>
312    
313     <p>
314 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
315     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
316 swift 1.125 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
317 swift 1.68 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
318     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
319 swift 1.125 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
320     settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
321     default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
322     a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
323     in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
324     <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
325     you update Portage!
326 swift 1.21 </p>
327    
328     <p>
329     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
330 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
331     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
332 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
333     </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
336     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
337 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
338 swift 1.23 </pre>
339    
340     <p>
341     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
342     and CD Recording support:
343 swift 1.21 </p>
344    
345 swift 1.125 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
346     # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
347 swift 1.21 </pre>
348    
349     <pre caption="USE setting">
350 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
351 swift 1.21 </pre>
352    
353 swift 1.69 </body>
354     </subsection>
355 swift 1.28 </section>
356 swift 1.3 </sections>

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