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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 swift 1.127 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.126 2012/12/08 20:37:21 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 swift 1.127 <version>19</version>
18     <date>2012-12-09</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 jkt 1.119 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34     navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35     mirrors.
36 swift 1.70 </p>
37    
38     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 swift 1.70 </pre>
41    
42     <p>
43     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 swift 1.2 </p>
49    
50 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 swift 1.2 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 swift 1.125 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 swift 1.2 </p>
58    
59 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
60     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65     specific mirror is offline.
66     </note>
67    
68 swift 1.2 </body>
69 swift 1.3 </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79     network.
80     </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 swift 1.18 </pre>
86    
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
90 swift 1.124 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 swift 1.43 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94 jkt 1.119 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95     make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96     systems available there as well.
97     </p>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.43 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 swift 1.124 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 swift 1.43 </p>
105    
106 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 swift 1.124 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 swift 1.43 </pre>
111    
112     </body>
113     </subsection>
114 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
115     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
116     <body>
117    
118     <p>
119     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
120     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
121     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
122     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
126     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
128     # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
129 nightmorph 1.105 </pre>
130    
131     </body>
132     </subsection>
133 swift 1.43 <subsection>
134 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
135 swift 1.1 <body>
136    
137     <p>
138 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
139 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
140 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
141 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
142 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
143 swift 1.1 </p>
144    
145     <p>
146     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
147 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
148     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
149     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
150 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
151     </p>
152    
153     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
154     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
155     # <i>env-update</i>
156 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
157 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
158 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
159 swift 1.1 </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
163 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
164 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
165     </p>
166    
167 swift 1.123 <p>
168     If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
169     environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
170     </p>
171    
172 swift 1.1 </body>
173 swift 1.3 </subsection>
174 swift 1.85 </section>
175    
176 swift 1.127 <section id="installing_portage">
177 swift 1.85 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
178 swift 1.3 <subsection>
179 swift 1.127 <title>Unpacking a Portage Snapshot</title>
180     <body>
181    
182     <p>
183     You now have to install a Portage snapshot, a collection of files that inform
184     Portage what software titles you can install, which profiles are available, etc.
185     The contents of this snapshot will be extracted to <path>/usr/portage</path>.
186     </p>
187    
188     <p>
189     We recommend the use of <c>emerge-webrsync</c>. This will fetch the latest
190     portage snapshot (which Gentoo releases on a daily basis) from one of our mirrors
191     and install it onto your system.
192     </p>
193    
194     <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync to install a Portage snapshot">
195     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage</i>
196     # <i>emerge-webrync</i>
197     </pre>
198    
199     </body>
200     </subsection>
201     <subsection>
202 swift 1.126 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
203 swift 1.2 <body>
204    
205     <p>
206 swift 1.126 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
207     --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
208     you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
209 swift 1.2 </p>
210    
211 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
212 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
213 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
214     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
215     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
216 swift 1.13 </pre>
217    
218     <p>
219 swift 1.126 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
220     step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
221 swift 1.75 </p>
222    
223     <p>
224 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
225 nightmorph 1.110 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
226 swift 1.13 </p>
227 swift 1.8
228     </body>
229     </subsection>
230 swift 1.72 <subsection>
231     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
232     <body>
233    
234     <p>
235     First, a small definition is in place.
236     </p>
237    
238     <p>
239     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
240 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
241 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
242     Gentoo developers.
243     </p>
244    
245 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
246 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
247     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
248 swift 1.72 </p>
249    
250     <p>
251 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
252 swift 1.72 </p>
253    
254     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
255 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
256     Available profile symlink targets:
257     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
258     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
259     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
260 swift 1.72 </pre>
261    
262     <p>
263 swift 1.122 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
264 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
265     profiles.
266 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
267    
268     <p>
269 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
270     different one if you wish:
271 swift 1.72 </p>
272    
273 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
274 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
275 swift 1.72 </pre>
276    
277 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
278     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
279     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
280 swift 1.72 </p>
281    
282 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
283 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
284     Available profile symlink targets:
285     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
286     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
287     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
288     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
289     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
290     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
291     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
292     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
293     Available profile symlink targets:
294     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
295     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
296     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
297     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
298 swift 1.83 </pre>
299    
300 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
301     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
302     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
303     </note>
304    
305 swift 1.72 </body>
306     </subsection>
307 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
308 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
309     <body>
310    
311     <p>
312     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
313     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
314     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
315     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
316     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
317     (X-server).
318     </p>
319    
320     <p>
321     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
322     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
323 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
324 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
329     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
330 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
331 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
332 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
333     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
334 swift 1.21 </p>
335    
336     <p>
337 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
338     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
339 swift 1.125 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
340 swift 1.68 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
341     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
342 swift 1.125 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
343     settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
344     default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
345     a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
346     in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
347     <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
348     you update Portage!
349 swift 1.21 </p>
350    
351     <p>
352     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
353 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
354     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
355 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
356     </p>
357    
358     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
359     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
360 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
361 swift 1.23 </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
365     and CD Recording support:
366 swift 1.21 </p>
367    
368 swift 1.125 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
369     # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
370 swift 1.21 </pre>
371    
372     <pre caption="USE setting">
373 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
374 swift 1.21 </pre>
375    
376 swift 1.69 </body>
377     </subsection>
378 swift 1.28 </section>
379 swift 1.3 </sections>

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