/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.129 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Jan 2 19:28:52 2013 UTC (18 months, 4 weeks ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.128: +5 -8 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Fix bug #449192 - remove env-update instructions as they are now obsolete

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 swift 1.129 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.128 2012/12/09 20:14:14 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 swift 1.129 <version>21</version>
18     <date>2013-01-03</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 jkt 1.119 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34     navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35     mirrors.
36 swift 1.70 </p>
37    
38     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 swift 1.70 </pre>
41    
42     <p>
43     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 swift 1.2 </p>
49    
50 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 swift 1.2 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 swift 1.125 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 swift 1.2 </p>
58    
59 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
60     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65     specific mirror is offline.
66     </note>
67    
68 swift 1.2 </body>
69 swift 1.3 </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79     network.
80     </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 swift 1.18 </pre>
86    
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
90 swift 1.124 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 swift 1.43 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94 jkt 1.119 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95     make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96     systems available there as well.
97     </p>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.43 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 swift 1.124 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 swift 1.43 </p>
105    
106 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 swift 1.124 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 swift 1.43 </pre>
111    
112     </body>
113     </subsection>
114 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
115     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
116     <body>
117    
118     <p>
119     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
120     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
121     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
122     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
126     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
128     # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
129 nightmorph 1.105 </pre>
130    
131     </body>
132     </subsection>
133 swift 1.43 <subsection>
134 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
135 swift 1.1 <body>
136    
137     <p>
138 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
139 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
140 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
141 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
142 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
143 swift 1.1 </p>
144    
145     <p>
146     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
147 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
148 swift 1.129 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
149     provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
150 swift 1.1 </p>
151    
152     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
153     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
154     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
155 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
156 swift 1.1 </pre>
157    
158     <p>
159     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
160 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
161 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
162     </p>
163    
164 swift 1.123 <p>
165     If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
166     environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
167     </p>
168    
169 swift 1.1 </body>
170 swift 1.3 </subsection>
171 swift 1.85 </section>
172    
173 swift 1.127 <section id="installing_portage">
174 swift 1.85 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
175 swift 1.3 <subsection>
176 swift 1.127 <title>Unpacking a Portage Snapshot</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180     You now have to install a Portage snapshot, a collection of files that inform
181     Portage what software titles you can install, which profiles are available, etc.
182     The contents of this snapshot will be extracted to <path>/usr/portage</path>.
183     </p>
184    
185     <p>
186     We recommend the use of <c>emerge-webrsync</c>. This will fetch the latest
187     portage snapshot (which Gentoo releases on a daily basis) from one of our mirrors
188     and install it onto your system.
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync to install a Portage snapshot">
192     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage</i>
193 swift 1.128 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
194 swift 1.127 </pre>
195    
196     </body>
197     </subsection>
198     <subsection>
199 swift 1.126 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
200 swift 1.2 <body>
201    
202     <p>
203 swift 1.126 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
204     --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
205     you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
206 swift 1.2 </p>
207    
208 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
209 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
210 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
211     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
212     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
213 swift 1.13 </pre>
214    
215     <p>
216 swift 1.126 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
217     step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
218 swift 1.75 </p>
219    
220     <p>
221 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
222 nightmorph 1.110 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
223 swift 1.13 </p>
224 swift 1.8
225     </body>
226     </subsection>
227 swift 1.72 <subsection>
228     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
229     <body>
230    
231     <p>
232     First, a small definition is in place.
233     </p>
234    
235     <p>
236     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
237 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
238 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
239     Gentoo developers.
240     </p>
241    
242 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
243 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
244     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
245 swift 1.72 </p>
246    
247     <p>
248 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
249 swift 1.72 </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
252 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
253     Available profile symlink targets:
254     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
255     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
256     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
257 swift 1.72 </pre>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.122 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
261 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
262     profiles.
263 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
264    
265     <p>
266 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
267     different one if you wish:
268 swift 1.72 </p>
269    
270 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
271 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
272 swift 1.72 </pre>
273    
274 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
275     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
276     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
277 swift 1.72 </p>
278    
279 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
280 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
281     Available profile symlink targets:
282     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
283     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
284     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
285     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
286     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
287     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
288     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
289     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
290     Available profile symlink targets:
291     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
292     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
293     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
294     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
295 swift 1.83 </pre>
296    
297 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
298     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
299     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
300     </note>
301    
302 swift 1.72 </body>
303     </subsection>
304 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
305 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
306     <body>
307    
308     <p>
309     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
310     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
311     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
312     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
313     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
314     (X-server).
315     </p>
316    
317     <p>
318     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
319     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
320 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
321 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
322     </p>
323    
324     <p>
325     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
326     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
327 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
328 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
329 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
330     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
331 swift 1.21 </p>
332    
333     <p>
334 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
335     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
336 swift 1.125 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
337 swift 1.68 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
338     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
339 swift 1.125 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
340     settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
341     default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
342     a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
343     in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
344     <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
345     you update Portage!
346 swift 1.21 </p>
347    
348     <p>
349     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
350 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
351     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
352 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
356     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
357 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
358 swift 1.23 </pre>
359    
360     <p>
361     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
362     and CD Recording support:
363 swift 1.21 </p>
364    
365 swift 1.125 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
366     # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
367 swift 1.21 </pre>
368    
369     <pre caption="USE setting">
370 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
371 swift 1.21 </pre>
372    
373 swift 1.69 </body>
374     </subsection>
375 swift 1.28 </section>
376 swift 1.3 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20