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Fix bug #449192 (missed a step, or counted a step too much). Fix by Chema Alonso with some minor modification

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 swift 1.130 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.129 2013/01/02 19:28:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 swift 1.130 <version>22</version>
18     <date>2013-01-08</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 jkt 1.119 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34     navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35     mirrors.
36 swift 1.70 </p>
37    
38     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 swift 1.70 </pre>
41    
42     <p>
43     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 swift 1.2 </p>
49    
50 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 swift 1.2 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 swift 1.125 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 swift 1.2 </p>
58    
59 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
60     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65     specific mirror is offline.
66     </note>
67    
68 swift 1.2 </body>
69 swift 1.3 </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79     network.
80     </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 swift 1.18 </pre>
86    
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
90 swift 1.124 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 swift 1.43 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94 jkt 1.119 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95     make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96     systems available there as well.
97     </p>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.43 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 swift 1.124 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 swift 1.43 </p>
105    
106 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 swift 1.124 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 swift 1.43 </pre>
111    
112     </body>
113     </subsection>
114 nightmorph 1.105 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
115     <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
116     <body>
117    
118     <p>
119     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
120     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
121     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
122     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
126     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
128     # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
129 nightmorph 1.105 </pre>
130    
131     </body>
132     </subsection>
133 swift 1.43 <subsection>
134 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
135 swift 1.1 <body>
136    
137     <p>
138 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
139 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
140 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
141 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
142 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
143 swift 1.1 </p>
144    
145     <p>
146     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
147 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
148 swift 1.129 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
149     provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
150 swift 1.130 The last step is to redefine the primary prompt to help us remember that we are
151     inside a chroot environment.
152 swift 1.1 </p>
153    
154     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
155     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
156     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
157 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
158 swift 1.1 </pre>
159    
160     <p>
161     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
162 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
163 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
164     </p>
165    
166 swift 1.123 <p>
167     If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
168     environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
169     </p>
170    
171 swift 1.1 </body>
172 swift 1.3 </subsection>
173 swift 1.85 </section>
174    
175 swift 1.127 <section id="installing_portage">
176 swift 1.85 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
177 swift 1.3 <subsection>
178 swift 1.127 <title>Unpacking a Portage Snapshot</title>
179     <body>
180    
181     <p>
182     You now have to install a Portage snapshot, a collection of files that inform
183     Portage what software titles you can install, which profiles are available, etc.
184     The contents of this snapshot will be extracted to <path>/usr/portage</path>.
185     </p>
186    
187     <p>
188     We recommend the use of <c>emerge-webrsync</c>. This will fetch the latest
189     portage snapshot (which Gentoo releases on a daily basis) from one of our mirrors
190     and install it onto your system.
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync to install a Portage snapshot">
194     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage</i>
195 swift 1.128 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
196 swift 1.127 </pre>
197    
198     </body>
199     </subsection>
200     <subsection>
201 swift 1.126 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
202 swift 1.2 <body>
203    
204     <p>
205 swift 1.126 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
206     --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
207     you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
208 swift 1.2 </p>
209    
210 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
211 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
212 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
213     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
214     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
215 swift 1.13 </pre>
216    
217     <p>
218 swift 1.126 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
219     step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
220 swift 1.75 </p>
221    
222     <p>
223 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
224 nightmorph 1.110 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
225 swift 1.13 </p>
226 swift 1.8
227     </body>
228     </subsection>
229 swift 1.72 <subsection>
230     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
231     <body>
232    
233     <p>
234     First, a small definition is in place.
235     </p>
236    
237     <p>
238     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
239 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
240 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
241     Gentoo developers.
242     </p>
243    
244 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
245 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
246     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
247 swift 1.72 </p>
248    
249     <p>
250 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
251 swift 1.72 </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
254 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
255     Available profile symlink targets:
256     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
257     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
258     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
259 swift 1.72 </pre>
260    
261     <p>
262 swift 1.122 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
263 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
264     profiles.
265 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
266    
267     <p>
268 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
269     different one if you wish:
270 swift 1.72 </p>
271    
272 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
273 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
274 swift 1.72 </pre>
275    
276 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
277     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
278     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
279 swift 1.72 </p>
280    
281 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
282 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
283     Available profile symlink targets:
284     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
285     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
286     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
287     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
288     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
289     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
290     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
291     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
292     Available profile symlink targets:
293     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
294     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
295     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
296     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
297 swift 1.83 </pre>
298    
299 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
300     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
301     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
302     </note>
303    
304 swift 1.72 </body>
305     </subsection>
306 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
307 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
312     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
313     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
314     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
315     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
316     (X-server).
317     </p>
318    
319     <p>
320     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
321     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
322 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
323 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
324     </p>
325    
326     <p>
327     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
328     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
329 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
330 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
331 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
332     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
333 swift 1.21 </p>
334    
335     <p>
336 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
337     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
338 swift 1.125 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
339 swift 1.68 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
340     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
341 swift 1.125 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
342     settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
343     default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
344     a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
345     in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
346     <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
347     you update Portage!
348 swift 1.21 </p>
349    
350     <p>
351     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
352 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
353     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
354 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
355     </p>
356    
357     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
358     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
359 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
360 swift 1.23 </pre>
361    
362     <p>
363     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
364     and CD Recording support:
365 swift 1.21 </p>
366    
367 swift 1.125 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
368     # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
369 swift 1.21 </pre>
370    
371     <pre caption="USE setting">
372 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
373 swift 1.21 </pre>
374    
375 swift 1.69 </body>
376     </subsection>
377 swift 1.28 </section>
378 swift 1.3 </sections>

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