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Fix bug #450038 - Add information on news items, thanks to Pacho Ramos

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 swift 1.132 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.131 2013/01/20 15:58:28 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.101 <abstract>
12     After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13     have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14     to progress to that state.
15     </abstract>
16    
17 swift 1.132 <version>24</version>
18 swift 1.131 <date>2013-01-20</date>
19 swift 1.56
20 swift 1.1 <section>
21 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 jkt 1.119 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34     navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35     mirrors.
36 swift 1.70 </p>
37    
38     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 swift 1.70 </pre>
41    
42     <p>
43     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 swift 1.2 </p>
49    
50 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 swift 1.125 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 swift 1.2 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 swift 1.125 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 swift 1.2 </p>
58    
59 nightmorph 1.113 <note>
60     If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61     check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62     list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63     <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64     single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65     specific mirror is offline.
66     </note>
67    
68 swift 1.2 </body>
69 swift 1.3 </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79     network.
80     </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 nightmorph 1.107 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 swift 1.18 </pre>
86    
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89 swift 1.131 <subsection>
90 swift 1.124 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 swift 1.43 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94 jkt 1.119 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95     make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96     systems available there as well.
97     </p>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.43 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 swift 1.124 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 swift 1.43 </p>
105    
106 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 swift 1.124 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 nightmorph 1.118 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 swift 1.43 </pre>
111    
112     </body>
113     </subsection>
114     <subsection>
115 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
116 swift 1.1 <body>
117    
118     <p>
119 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
120 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
121 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
122 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
123 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
124 swift 1.1 </p>
125    
126     <p>
127     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
128 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
129 swift 1.129 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
130     provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
131 swift 1.130 The last step is to redefine the primary prompt to help us remember that we are
132     inside a chroot environment.
133 swift 1.1 </p>
134    
135     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
136     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
137     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
138 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
139 swift 1.1 </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
143 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
144 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
145     </p>
146    
147 swift 1.123 <p>
148     If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
149     environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
150     </p>
151    
152 swift 1.1 </body>
153 swift 1.3 </subsection>
154 swift 1.85 </section>
155    
156 swift 1.127 <section id="installing_portage">
157 swift 1.85 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
158 swift 1.3 <subsection>
159 swift 1.127 <title>Unpacking a Portage Snapshot</title>
160     <body>
161    
162     <p>
163     You now have to install a Portage snapshot, a collection of files that inform
164     Portage what software titles you can install, which profiles are available, etc.
165     The contents of this snapshot will be extracted to <path>/usr/portage</path>.
166     </p>
167    
168     <p>
169     We recommend the use of <c>emerge-webrsync</c>. This will fetch the latest
170     portage snapshot (which Gentoo releases on a daily basis) from one of our mirrors
171     and install it onto your system.
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync to install a Portage snapshot">
175     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage</i>
176 swift 1.128 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
177 swift 1.127 </pre>
178    
179     </body>
180     </subsection>
181     <subsection>
182 swift 1.126 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
183 swift 1.2 <body>
184    
185     <p>
186 swift 1.126 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
187     --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
188     you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
189 swift 1.2 </p>
190    
191 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
192 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
193 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
194     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
195     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
196 swift 1.13 </pre>
197    
198     <p>
199 swift 1.126 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
200     step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
201 swift 1.75 </p>
202    
203     <p>
204 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
205 swift 1.132 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>. You
206     might also be notified that "news items need reading". More on that next.
207     </p>
208    
209     </body>
210     </subsection>
211     <subsection>
212     <title>Reading News Items</title>
213     <body>
214    
215     <p>
216     When a Portage tree is synchronized to your system, Portage might warn you with
217     the following:
218     </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Portage informing that news items are available">
221     * IMPORTANT: 2 news items need reading for repository 'gentoo'.
222     * Use eselect news to read news items.
223     </pre>
224    
225     <p>
226     Portage news items were created to provide a communication medium to push
227     critical messages to users via the rsync tree. To manage them you will need to
228     use <c>eselect news</c>. With the <c>read</c> subcommand, you can read all news
229     items. With <c>list</c> you can get an overview of the available news items, and
230     with <c>purge</c> you can remove them once you have read them and have no
231     further need for the item(s) anymore.
232     </p>
233    
234     <pre caption="Handling Portage news">
235     # <i>eselect news list</i>
236     # <i>eselect news read</i>
237     </pre>
238    
239     <p>
240     More information about the newsreader is available through its manual page:
241     <c>man news.eselect</c>.
242 swift 1.13 </p>
243 swift 1.8
244     </body>
245     </subsection>
246 swift 1.72 <subsection>
247     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
248     <body>
249    
250     <p>
251     First, a small definition is in place.
252     </p>
253    
254     <p>
255     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
256 nightmorph 1.112 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
257 swift 1.72 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
258     Gentoo developers.
259     </p>
260    
261 nightmorph 1.106 <p>
262 nightmorph 1.102 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
263     certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
264 swift 1.72 </p>
265    
266     <p>
267 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
268 swift 1.72 </p>
269    
270     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
271 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
272     Available profile symlink targets:
273     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
274     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
275     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
276 swift 1.72 </pre>
277    
278     <p>
279 swift 1.122 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
280 nightmorph 1.112 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
281     profiles.
282 nightmorph 1.99 </p>
283    
284     <p>
285 nightmorph 1.112 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
286     different one if you wish:
287 swift 1.72 </p>
288    
289 nightmorph 1.106 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
290 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
291 swift 1.72 </pre>
292    
293 nightmorph 1.106 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
294     If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
295     libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
296 swift 1.72 </p>
297    
298 nightmorph 1.106 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
299 nightmorph 1.112 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
300     Available profile symlink targets:
301     [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
302     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
303     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
304     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
305     <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
306     # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
307     <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
308     # <i>eselect profile list</i>
309     Available profile symlink targets:
310     [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
311     [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
312     [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
313     [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
314 swift 1.83 </pre>
315    
316 nightmorph 1.111 <note>
317     The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
318     tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
319     </note>
320    
321 swift 1.72 </body>
322     </subsection>
323 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
324 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
325     <body>
326    
327     <p>
328     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
329     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
330     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
331     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
332     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
333     (X-server).
334     </p>
335    
336     <p>
337     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
338     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
339 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
340 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
341     </p>
342    
343     <p>
344     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
345     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
346 nightmorph 1.100 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
347 nightmorph 1.115 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
348 nightmorph 1.100 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
349     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
350 swift 1.21 </p>
351    
352     <p>
353 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
354     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
355 swift 1.125 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
356 swift 1.68 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
357     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
358 swift 1.125 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
359     settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
360     default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
361     a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
362     in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
363     <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
364     you update Portage!
365 swift 1.21 </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
369 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
370     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
371 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
372     </p>
373    
374     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
375     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
376 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
377 swift 1.23 </pre>
378    
379     <p>
380     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
381     and CD Recording support:
382 swift 1.21 </p>
383    
384 swift 1.125 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
385     # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
386 swift 1.21 </pre>
387    
388     <pre caption="USE setting">
389 nightmorph 1.115 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
390 swift 1.21 </pre>
391    
392 swift 1.69 </body>
393     </subsection>
394 swift 1.28 </section>
395 swift 1.3 </sections>

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