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Fix #36241 - We recommend to change the USE variable based on the default USE settings, but the defaults arent available before the user runs emerge sync.

1 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3    
4 swift 1.21 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.20 2003/12/17 17:05:59 swift Exp $ -->
5 swift 1.11
6 swift 1.3 <sections>
7 swift 1.1 <section>
8 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 swift 1.1 <subsection>
10 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11     <body>
12    
13     <p>
14     If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15     to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16     as source code:
17     </p>
18    
19     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21     </pre>
22    
23     <p>
24     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25     completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26     </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36     is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37     to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39     network.
40     </p>
41    
42     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 swift 1.18 </pre>
45    
46     </body>
47     </subsection>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
54     does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure:
55     </p>
56    
57     <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
58     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
59     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
60 swift 1.5 </pre>
61    
62     </body>
63     </subsection>
64     <subsection>
65 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
66 swift 1.1 <body>
67    
68     <p>
69 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
70 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
71 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
72 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
73 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
74 swift 1.1 </p>
75    
76     <p>
77     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
78 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
79     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
80     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
81 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
82     </p>
83    
84     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
85     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
86     # <i>env-update</i>
87     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
88     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
89     </pre>
90    
91     <p>
92     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
93 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
94 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
95     </p>
96    
97     </body>
98 swift 1.3 </subsection>
99     <subsection>
100 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
101     <body>
102    
103     <p>
104     If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
105 swift 1.4 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
106 swift 1.21 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
107     variable</uri>.
108 swift 1.2 </p>
109    
110     <pre caption="Updating Portage">
111     # <i>emerge sync</i>
112 swift 1.13 </pre>
113    
114     <p>
115     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
116 neysx 1.15 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
117 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
118 swift 1.13 </p>
119 swift 1.8
120     </body>
121     </subsection>
122     <subsection>
123 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
124     <body>
125    
126     <p>
127     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
128     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
129     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
130     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
131     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
132     (X-server).
133     </p>
134    
135     <p>
136     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
137     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
138     amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define with what options a package
139     should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>
143     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
144     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
145     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
146     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
147     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
148     tweaked for GNOME.
149     </p>
150    
151     <p>
152     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
153     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
154     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
155     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
156     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
157     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
158     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
159     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
160     </p>
161    
162     <p>
163     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
164     Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. As an
165     example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA and
166     CD Recording support:
167     </p>
168    
169     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
170     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
171     </pre>
172    
173     <pre caption="USE setting">
174     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
175     </pre>
176    
177     </body>
178     </subsection>
179     <subsection>
180 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
181     <body>
182    
183     <p>
184     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
185     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
186     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
187     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
188     </p>
189 swift 1.2
190     </body>
191 swift 1.1 </subsection>
192 swift 1.3 </section>
193     <section>
194 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
195     <body>
196    
197     <p>
198     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
199     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
200     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
201     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
202     </p>
203    
204     <ul>
205     <li>
206 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
207     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
208     to Stage2</uri>)
209 swift 1.1 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
212     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
213     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
214 swift 1.1 </li>
215     <li>
216 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
217     steps and continue with the next section: <uri
218     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
219 swift 1.1 </li>
220     </ul>
221    
222     </body>
223 swift 1.3 </section>
224     <section>
225     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
226 swift 1.1 <subsection>
227     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>
231     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
232     </p>
233    
234     <p>
235     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
236     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
237     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
238     </p>
239    
240     <p>
241     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
242     Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
243     Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
244     we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
245     </p>
246    
247     <p>
248     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
249 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
250     link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
251 swift 1.1 </p>
252    
253     </body>
254 swift 1.3 </subsection>
255     <subsection>
256 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260     If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
261     java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
262     Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
263     compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
264 swift 1.17 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
265 swift 1.1 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
266     </p>
267    
268     <p>
269     To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
270     firing up the bootstrap script.
271     </p>
272    
273     <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
274     # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
275     </pre>
276    
277 swift 1.7 <p>
278     Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
279     </p>
280    
281     <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
282     # <i>unset USE</i>
283     </pre>
284    
285 swift 1.1 </body>
286 swift 1.3 </subsection>
287     <subsection>
288 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
289     <body>
290    
291     <p>
292     If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
293     script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
294     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
295     download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
296     because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
297     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
298     fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
299     </p>
300    
301     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
302     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
303     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
304     </pre>
305    
306     </body>
307 swift 1.3 </subsection>
308     <subsection>
309 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
310     <body>
311    
312     <p>
313     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
314 swift 1.4 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
315     Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
316     finish.
317 swift 1.1 </p>
318    
319     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
320     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
321     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
322 swift 1.12 </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
326 swift 1.19 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
327 swift 1.12 work fast:
328     </p>
329    
330 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
331 swift 1.12 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
332 swift 1.1 </pre>
333    
334 swift 1.4 <p>
335     Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
336     to Stage3</uri>.
337     </p>
338    
339 swift 1.1 </body>
340     </subsection>
341 swift 1.3 </section>
342     <section>
343     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
344 swift 1.1 <subsection>
345     <title>Introduction</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
350     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
351     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
356 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
357     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
358 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
359     </p>
360    
361     </body>
362 swift 1.3 </subsection>
363     <subsection>
364 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
365     <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
369 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
370 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
371     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
372     </p>
373    
374     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
375 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
376 swift 1.1 </pre>
377    
378     </body>
379 swift 1.3 </subsection>
380     <subsection>
381 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
382 swift 1.1 <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
386     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
387 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
388 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
389     </p>
390    
391     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
392 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
393 swift 1.1 </pre>
394    
395     </body>
396 swift 1.3 </subsection>
397     <subsection>
398 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
403 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
404     complete.
405 swift 1.1 </p>
406    
407     <pre caption = "Building the System">
408     # <i>emerge system</i>
409     </pre>
410    
411     <p>
412 swift 1.4 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
413     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
414 swift 1.1 </p>
415    
416     </body>
417     </subsection>
418     </section>
419 swift 1.3 </sections>

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