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1 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3    
4 swift 1.22 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.21 2003/12/21 17:01:33 swift Exp $ -->
5 swift 1.11
6 swift 1.3 <sections>
7 swift 1.1 <section>
8 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 swift 1.1 <subsection>
10 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11     <body>
12    
13     <p>
14     If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15     to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16     as source code:
17     </p>
18    
19     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21     </pre>
22    
23     <p>
24     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25     completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26     </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36     is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37     to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39     network.
40     </p>
41    
42     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 swift 1.18 </pre>
45    
46     </body>
47     </subsection>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
54 swift 1.22 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
55     you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
56 swift 1.18 </p>
57    
58     <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
59     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
60     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
61 swift 1.5 </pre>
62    
63     </body>
64     </subsection>
65     <subsection>
66 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
67 swift 1.1 <body>
68    
69     <p>
70 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
71 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
72 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
73 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
74 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
79 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
80     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
81     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
82 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
83     </p>
84    
85     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
86     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
87     # <i>env-update</i>
88     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
89     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
90     </pre>
91    
92     <p>
93     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
94 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
95 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99 swift 1.3 </subsection>
100     <subsection>
101 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
106 swift 1.4 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
107 swift 1.21 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
108     variable</uri>.
109 swift 1.2 </p>
110    
111     <pre caption="Updating Portage">
112     # <i>emerge sync</i>
113 swift 1.13 </pre>
114    
115     <p>
116     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
117 neysx 1.15 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
118 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
119 swift 1.13 </p>
120 swift 1.8
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
129     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
130     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
131     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
132     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
133     (X-server).
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
138     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
139     amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define with what options a package
140     should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
141     </p>
142    
143     <p>
144     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
145     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
146     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
147     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
148     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
149     tweaked for GNOME.
150     </p>
151    
152     <p>
153     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
154     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
155     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
156     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
157     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
158     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
159     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
160     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
161     </p>
162    
163     <p>
164     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
165     Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. As an
166     example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA and
167     CD Recording support:
168     </p>
169    
170     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
171     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
172     </pre>
173    
174     <pre caption="USE setting">
175     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
176     </pre>
177    
178     </body>
179     </subsection>
180     <subsection>
181 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
182     <body>
183    
184     <p>
185     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
186     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
187     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
188     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
189     </p>
190 swift 1.2
191     </body>
192 swift 1.1 </subsection>
193 swift 1.3 </section>
194     <section>
195 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>
199     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
200     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
201     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
202     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
203     </p>
204    
205     <ul>
206     <li>
207 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
208     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
209     to Stage2</uri>)
210 swift 1.1 </li>
211     <li>
212 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
213     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
214     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
215 swift 1.1 </li>
216     <li>
217 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
218     steps and continue with the next section: <uri
219     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
220 swift 1.1 </li>
221     </ul>
222    
223     </body>
224 swift 1.3 </section>
225     <section>
226     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
227 swift 1.1 <subsection>
228     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
229     <body>
230    
231     <p>
232     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
233     </p>
234    
235     <p>
236     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
237     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
238     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
239     </p>
240    
241     <p>
242     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
243     Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
244     Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
245     we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
246     </p>
247    
248     <p>
249     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
250 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
251     link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
252 swift 1.1 </p>
253    
254     </body>
255 swift 1.3 </subsection>
256     <subsection>
257 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
258     <body>
259    
260     <p>
261     If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
262     java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
263     Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
264     compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
265 swift 1.17 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
266 swift 1.1 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
267     </p>
268    
269     <p>
270     To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
271     firing up the bootstrap script.
272     </p>
273    
274     <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
275     # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
276     </pre>
277    
278 swift 1.7 <p>
279     Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
280     </p>
281    
282     <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
283     # <i>unset USE</i>
284     </pre>
285    
286 swift 1.1 </body>
287 swift 1.3 </subsection>
288     <subsection>
289 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
290     <body>
291    
292     <p>
293     If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
294     script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
295     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
296     download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
297     because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
298     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
299     fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
300     </p>
301    
302     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
303     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
304     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
305     </pre>
306    
307     </body>
308 swift 1.3 </subsection>
309     <subsection>
310 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
311     <body>
312    
313     <p>
314     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
315 swift 1.4 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
316     Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
317     finish.
318 swift 1.1 </p>
319    
320     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
321     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
322     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
323 swift 1.12 </pre>
324    
325     <p>
326     If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
327 swift 1.19 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
328 swift 1.12 work fast:
329     </p>
330    
331 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
332 swift 1.12 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
333 swift 1.1 </pre>
334    
335 swift 1.4 <p>
336     Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
337     to Stage3</uri>.
338     </p>
339    
340 swift 1.1 </body>
341     </subsection>
342 swift 1.3 </section>
343     <section>
344     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
345 swift 1.1 <subsection>
346     <title>Introduction</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
351     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
352     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
357 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
358     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
359 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
360     </p>
361    
362     </body>
363 swift 1.3 </subsection>
364     <subsection>
365 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>
369     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
370 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
371 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
372     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
373     </p>
374    
375     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
376 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
377 swift 1.1 </pre>
378    
379     </body>
380 swift 1.3 </subsection>
381     <subsection>
382 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
383 swift 1.1 <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
387     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
388 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
389 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
390     </p>
391    
392     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
393 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
394 swift 1.1 </pre>
395    
396     </body>
397 swift 1.3 </subsection>
398     <subsection>
399 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
400     <body>
401    
402     <p>
403     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
404 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
405     complete.
406 swift 1.1 </p>
407    
408     <pre caption = "Building the System">
409     # <i>emerge system</i>
410     </pre>
411    
412     <p>
413 swift 1.4 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
414     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
415 swift 1.1 </p>
416    
417     </body>
418     </subsection>
419     </section>
420 swift 1.3 </sections>

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