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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.26 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.25 2004/01/06 15:30:08 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.24 and source code:
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     <p>
27     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28     completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29     </p>
30    
31     </body>
32 swift 1.3 </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35     <body>
36    
37     <p>
38 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42     network.
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 swift 1.18 </pre>
48    
49     </body>
50     </subsection>
51     <subsection>
52     <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
53     <body>
54    
55     <p>
56     Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
57 swift 1.22 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
58     you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
59 swift 1.18 </p>
60    
61     <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
62     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
63     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
64 swift 1.5 </pre>
65    
66     </body>
67     </subsection>
68     <subsection>
69 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 swift 1.1 <body>
71    
72     <p>
73 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 swift 1.1 </p>
79    
80     <p>
81     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86     </p>
87    
88     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90     # <i>env-update</i>
91     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
92     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93     </pre>
94    
95     <p>
96     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
99     </p>
100    
101     </body>
102 swift 1.3 </subsection>
103     <subsection>
104 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
109 swift 1.4 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
110 swift 1.21 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
111     variable</uri>.
112 swift 1.2 </p>
113    
114     <pre caption="Updating Portage">
115     # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 swift 1.13 </pre>
117    
118     <p>
119     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
120 neysx 1.15 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
121 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
122 swift 1.13 </p>
123 swift 1.8
124     </body>
125     </subsection>
126     <subsection>
127 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
128     <body>
129    
130     <p>
131     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
132     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
133     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
134     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
135     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
136     (X-server).
137     </p>
138    
139     <p>
140     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
141     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
142 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
143 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
144     </p>
145    
146     <p>
147     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
148     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
149     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
150     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
151     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
152     tweaked for GNOME.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
157     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
158     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
159     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
160     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
161     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
162     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
163     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
164     </p>
165    
166     <p>
167     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
168 swift 1.23 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
169     description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
170     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
171     </p>
172    
173     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
174     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
175     </pre>
176    
177     <p>
178     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
179     and CD Recording support:
180 swift 1.21 </p>
181    
182     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
183     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
184     </pre>
185    
186     <pre caption="USE setting">
187     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
188     </pre>
189    
190     </body>
191     </subsection>
192     <subsection>
193 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
198     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
199     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
200     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
201     </p>
202 swift 1.2
203     </body>
204 swift 1.1 </subsection>
205 swift 1.3 </section>
206     <section>
207 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
208     <body>
209    
210     <p>
211     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
212     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
213     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
214     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
215     </p>
216    
217     <ul>
218     <li>
219 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
220     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
221     to Stage2</uri>)
222 swift 1.1 </li>
223     <li>
224 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
225     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
226     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
227 swift 1.1 </li>
228     <li>
229 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
230     steps and continue with the next section: <uri
231     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
232 swift 1.1 </li>
233     </ul>
234    
235     </body>
236 swift 1.3 </section>
237     <section>
238     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
239 swift 1.1 <subsection>
240     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
241     <body>
242    
243     <p>
244     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
245     </p>
246    
247     <p>
248     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
249     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
250     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
251     </p>
252    
253     <p>
254     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
255     Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
256     Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
257     we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
262 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
263     link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
264 swift 1.1 </p>
265    
266     </body>
267 swift 1.3 </subsection>
268     <subsection>
269 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>
273     If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
274     java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
275     Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
276     compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
277 swift 1.17 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
278 swift 1.1 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
279     </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
283     firing up the bootstrap script.
284     </p>
285    
286     <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
287     # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
288     </pre>
289    
290 swift 1.7 <p>
291     Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
292     </p>
293    
294     <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
295     # <i>unset USE</i>
296     </pre>
297    
298 swift 1.1 </body>
299 swift 1.3 </subsection>
300     <subsection>
301 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
302     <body>
303    
304     <p>
305 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
306 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
307     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
308 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
309 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
310     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
311 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
312 swift 1.1 </p>
313    
314     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
315     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
316     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
317     </pre>
318    
319     </body>
320 swift 1.3 </subsection>
321     <subsection>
322 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
323     <body>
324    
325     <p>
326     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
327 swift 1.4 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
328     Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
329     finish.
330 swift 1.1 </p>
331    
332     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
333     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
334     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
335 swift 1.12 </pre>
336    
337     <p>
338     If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
339 swift 1.19 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
340 swift 1.12 work fast:
341     </p>
342    
343 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
344 swift 1.12 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
345 swift 1.1 </pre>
346    
347 swift 1.4 <p>
348     Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
349     to Stage3</uri>.
350     </p>
351    
352 swift 1.1 </body>
353     </subsection>
354 swift 1.3 </section>
355     <section>
356     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
357 swift 1.1 <subsection>
358     <title>Introduction</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
363     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
364     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
369 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
370     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
371 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
372     </p>
373    
374     </body>
375 swift 1.3 </subsection>
376     <subsection>
377 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
382 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
383 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
384     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
385     </p>
386    
387     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
388 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
389 swift 1.1 </pre>
390    
391     </body>
392 swift 1.3 </subsection>
393     <subsection>
394 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
395 swift 1.1 <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
399     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
400 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
401 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
405 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
406 swift 1.1 </pre>
407    
408     </body>
409 swift 1.3 </subsection>
410     <subsection>
411 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
412     <body>
413    
414     <p>
415     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
416 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
417     complete.
418 swift 1.1 </p>
419    
420     <pre caption = "Building the System">
421     # <i>emerge system</i>
422     </pre>
423    
424     <p>
425 swift 1.4 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
426     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
427 swift 1.1 </p>
428    
429     </body>
430     </subsection>
431     </section>
432 swift 1.3 </sections>

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