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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.27 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.26 2004/01/08 14:23:17 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.24 and source code:
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     <p>
27     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28     completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29     </p>
30    
31     </body>
32 swift 1.3 </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35     <body>
36    
37     <p>
38 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42     network.
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 swift 1.18 </pre>
48    
49     </body>
50     </subsection>
51     <subsection>
52     <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
53     <body>
54    
55     <p>
56     Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
57 swift 1.22 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
58     you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
59 swift 1.18 </p>
60    
61     <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
62     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
63     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
64 swift 1.5 </pre>
65    
66     </body>
67     </subsection>
68     <subsection>
69 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 swift 1.1 <body>
71    
72     <p>
73 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 swift 1.1 </p>
79    
80     <p>
81     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86     </p>
87    
88     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90     # <i>env-update</i>
91     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
92     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93     </pre>
94    
95     <p>
96     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
99     </p>
100    
101     </body>
102 swift 1.3 </subsection>
103     <subsection>
104 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
109 swift 1.4 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
110 swift 1.21 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
111     variable</uri>.
112 swift 1.2 </p>
113    
114     <pre caption="Updating Portage">
115     # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 swift 1.27 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
117     downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
118     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
119 swift 1.13 </pre>
120    
121     <p>
122     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
123 neysx 1.15 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
124 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
125 swift 1.13 </p>
126 swift 1.8
127     </body>
128     </subsection>
129     <subsection>
130 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
135     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
136     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
137     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
138     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
139     (X-server).
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>
143     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
144     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
145 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
146 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>
150     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
151     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
152     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
153     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
154     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
155     tweaked for GNOME.
156     </p>
157    
158     <p>
159     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
160     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
161     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
162     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
163     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
164     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
165     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
166     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
167     </p>
168    
169     <p>
170     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
171 swift 1.23 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
172     description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
173     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
174     </p>
175    
176     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
177     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
178     </pre>
179    
180     <p>
181     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
182     and CD Recording support:
183 swift 1.21 </p>
184    
185     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
186     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
187     </pre>
188    
189     <pre caption="USE setting">
190     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
191     </pre>
192    
193     </body>
194     </subsection>
195     <subsection>
196 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
197     <body>
198    
199     <p>
200     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
201     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
202     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
203     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
204     </p>
205 swift 1.2
206     </body>
207 swift 1.1 </subsection>
208 swift 1.3 </section>
209     <section>
210 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
211     <body>
212    
213     <p>
214     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
215     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
216     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
217     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
218     </p>
219    
220     <ul>
221     <li>
222 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
223     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
224     to Stage2</uri>)
225 swift 1.1 </li>
226     <li>
227 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
228     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
229     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
230 swift 1.1 </li>
231     <li>
232 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
233     steps and continue with the next section: <uri
234     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
235 swift 1.1 </li>
236     </ul>
237    
238     </body>
239 swift 1.3 </section>
240     <section>
241     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
242 swift 1.1 <subsection>
243     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
248     </p>
249    
250     <p>
251     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
252     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
253     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
254     </p>
255    
256     <p>
257     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
258     Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
259     Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
260     we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
261     </p>
262    
263     <p>
264     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
265 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
266     link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
267 swift 1.1 </p>
268    
269     </body>
270 swift 1.3 </subsection>
271     <subsection>
272 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
273     <body>
274    
275     <p>
276     If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
277     java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
278     Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
279     compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
280 swift 1.17 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
281 swift 1.1 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
282     </p>
283    
284     <p>
285     To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
286     firing up the bootstrap script.
287     </p>
288    
289     <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
290     # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
291     </pre>
292    
293 swift 1.7 <p>
294     Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
295     </p>
296    
297     <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
298     # <i>unset USE</i>
299     </pre>
300    
301 swift 1.1 </body>
302 swift 1.3 </subsection>
303     <subsection>
304 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
305     <body>
306    
307     <p>
308 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
309 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
310     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
311 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
312 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
313     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
314 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
315 swift 1.1 </p>
316    
317     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
318     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
319     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
320     </pre>
321    
322     </body>
323 swift 1.3 </subsection>
324     <subsection>
325 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
326     <body>
327    
328     <p>
329     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
330 swift 1.4 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
331     Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
332     finish.
333 swift 1.1 </p>
334    
335     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
336     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
337     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
338 swift 1.12 </pre>
339    
340     <p>
341     If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
342 swift 1.19 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
343 swift 1.12 work fast:
344     </p>
345    
346 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
347 swift 1.12 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
348 swift 1.1 </pre>
349    
350 swift 1.4 <p>
351     Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
352     to Stage3</uri>.
353     </p>
354    
355 swift 1.1 </body>
356     </subsection>
357 swift 1.3 </section>
358     <section>
359     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
360 swift 1.1 <subsection>
361     <title>Introduction</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
366     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
367     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
368     </p>
369    
370     <p>
371     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
372 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
373     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
374 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
375     </p>
376    
377     </body>
378 swift 1.3 </subsection>
379     <subsection>
380 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
381     <body>
382    
383     <p>
384     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
385 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
386 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
387     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
388     </p>
389    
390     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
391 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
392 swift 1.1 </pre>
393    
394     </body>
395 swift 1.3 </subsection>
396     <subsection>
397 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
398 swift 1.1 <body>
399    
400     <p>
401     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
402     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
403 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
404 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
405     </p>
406    
407     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
408 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
409 swift 1.1 </pre>
410    
411     </body>
412 swift 1.3 </subsection>
413     <subsection>
414 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
419 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
420     complete.
421 swift 1.1 </p>
422    
423     <pre caption = "Building the System">
424     # <i>emerge system</i>
425     </pre>
426    
427     <p>
428 swift 1.4 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
429     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
430 swift 1.1 </p>
431    
432     </body>
433     </subsection>
434     </section>
435 swift 1.3 </sections>

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