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Revision 1.29 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Mar 2 20:23:06 2004 UTC (10 years, 7 months ago) by swift
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#43323 - bindmounting /dev is not needed, it even causes issues; or we remove the instruction or we tell the stage1 bootstrapping script to treat the /dev specially (touch /dev/.devfsd). Ive opted to remove the instructions as recommended by most sources

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.29 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.28 2004/03/01 05:43:41 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     <p>
27     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28     completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29     </p>
30    
31     </body>
32 swift 1.3 </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35     <body>
36    
37     <p>
38 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42     network.
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 swift 1.18 </pre>
48    
49     </body>
50     </subsection>
51     <subsection>
52 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
53 swift 1.1 <body>
54    
55     <p>
56 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
57 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
58 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
59 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
60 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
61 swift 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
65 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
66     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
67     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
68 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
72     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
73     # <i>env-update</i>
74     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
75     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
76     </pre>
77    
78     <p>
79     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
80 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
81 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
82     </p>
83    
84     </body>
85 swift 1.3 </subsection>
86     <subsection>
87 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
88     <body>
89    
90     <p>
91 swift 1.28 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
92     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
93     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
94     link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
95 swift 1.2 </p>
96    
97     <pre caption="Updating Portage">
98     # <i>emerge sync</i>
99 swift 1.27 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
100     downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
101     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
102 swift 1.13 </pre>
103    
104     <p>
105     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
106 neysx 1.15 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
107 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
108 swift 1.13 </p>
109 swift 1.8
110     </body>
111     </subsection>
112 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
113 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
114     <body>
115    
116     <p>
117     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
118     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
119     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
120     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
121     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
122     (X-server).
123     </p>
124    
125     <p>
126     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
127     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
128 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
129 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
130     </p>
131    
132     <p>
133     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
134     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
135     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
136     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
137     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
138     tweaked for GNOME.
139     </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
143     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
144     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
145     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
146     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
147     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
148     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
149     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
150     </p>
151    
152     <p>
153     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
154 swift 1.23 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
155     description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
156     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
160     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
161     </pre>
162    
163     <p>
164     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
165     and CD Recording support:
166 swift 1.21 </p>
167    
168     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
169     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
170     </pre>
171    
172     <pre caption="USE setting">
173     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
174     </pre>
175    
176     </body>
177     </subsection>
178     <subsection>
179 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
180     <body>
181    
182     <p>
183     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
184     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
185     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
186     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
187     </p>
188 swift 1.2
189     </body>
190 swift 1.1 </subsection>
191 swift 1.3 </section>
192     <section>
193 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
198     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
199     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
200     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
201     </p>
202    
203     <ul>
204     <li>
205 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
206     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
207     to Stage2</uri>)
208 swift 1.1 </li>
209     <li>
210 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
211     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
212     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
213 swift 1.1 </li>
214     <li>
215 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
216 swift 1.28 steps. If you want to use GRP, continue with <uri
217     link="#preparing_grp">Optional: Preparing for GRP</uri>. Otherwise continue
218     with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
219 swift 1.1 </li>
220     </ul>
221    
222     </body>
223 swift 1.3 </section>
224     <section>
225     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
226 swift 1.1 <subsection>
227     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>
231     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
232     </p>
233    
234     <p>
235     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
236     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
237     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
238     </p>
239    
240     <p>
241     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
242     Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
243     Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
244     we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
245     </p>
246    
247     <p>
248     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
249 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
250     link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
251 swift 1.1 </p>
252    
253     </body>
254 swift 1.3 </subsection>
255     <subsection>
256 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260     If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
261     java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
262     Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
263     compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
264 swift 1.17 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
265 swift 1.1 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
266     </p>
267    
268     <p>
269     To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
270     firing up the bootstrap script.
271     </p>
272    
273     <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
274     # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
275     </pre>
276    
277 swift 1.7 <p>
278     Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
279     </p>
280    
281     <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
282     # <i>unset USE</i>
283     </pre>
284    
285 swift 1.1 </body>
286 swift 1.3 </subsection>
287     <subsection>
288 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
289     <body>
290    
291     <p>
292 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
293 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
294     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
295 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
296 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
297     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
298 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
299 swift 1.1 </p>
300    
301     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
302     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
303     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
304     </pre>
305    
306     </body>
307 swift 1.3 </subsection>
308     <subsection>
309 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
310     <body>
311    
312     <p>
313     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
314 swift 1.4 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
315     Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
316     finish.
317 swift 1.1 </p>
318    
319     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
320     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
321     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
322 swift 1.12 </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
326 swift 1.19 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
327 swift 1.12 work fast:
328     </p>
329    
330 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
331 swift 1.12 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
332 swift 1.1 </pre>
333    
334 swift 1.4 <p>
335     Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
336     to Stage3</uri>.
337     </p>
338    
339 swift 1.1 </body>
340     </subsection>
341 swift 1.3 </section>
342     <section>
343     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
344 swift 1.1 <subsection>
345     <title>Introduction</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
350     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
351     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
356 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
357     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
358 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
359     </p>
360    
361     </body>
362 swift 1.3 </subsection>
363     <subsection>
364 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
365     <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
369 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
370 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
371     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
372     </p>
373    
374     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
375 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
376 swift 1.1 </pre>
377    
378     </body>
379 swift 1.3 </subsection>
380     <subsection>
381 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
382 swift 1.1 <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
386     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
387 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
388 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
389     </p>
390    
391     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
392 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
393 swift 1.1 </pre>
394    
395     </body>
396 swift 1.3 </subsection>
397     <subsection>
398 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
403 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
404     complete.
405 swift 1.1 </p>
406    
407     <pre caption = "Building the System">
408     # <i>emerge system</i>
409     </pre>
410    
411     <p>
412 swift 1.4 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
413     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
414 swift 1.1 </p>
415    
416     </body>
417     </subsection>
418     </section>
419 swift 1.28 <section id="preparing_grp">
420     <title>Optional: Preparing for GRP</title>
421     <subsection>
422     <title>Introduction</title>
423     <body>
424    
425     <p>
426     If you are booted from a x86 or ppc CD-1 LiveCD you can relax and continue with
427     <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri> as the installation
428     of prebuilt packages happens at the very end of the installation.
429     </p>
430    
431     <p>
432     If you are booted from a different architecture LiveCD and you want to use the
433     prebuilt packages provided by the LiveCD, continue with <uri
434     link="#copying_from_livecd">Copying over the GRP packages</uri>.
435     </p>
436    
437     <p>
438     If you want to use the prebuilt packages provided by a Gentoo mirror, continue
439     with <uri link="#grp_downloads">Configuring Portage for GRP Downloads</uri>.
440     </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </subsection>
444     <subsection id="copying_from_livecd">
445     <title>Copying over the GRP packages</title>
446     <body>
447    
448     <p>
449     You should now copy over the packages onto your filesystem so that Portage is
450     able to use them. First of all, open a second terminal by pressing
451     <c>Alt-F2</c>. This is needed as we need to work from the LiveCD, not from the
452     chrooted environment you're currently working in.
453     </p>
454    
455     <p>
456     You should be greeted by a root prompt (<c>#</c>). Copy over the packages using
457     the following commands:
458     </p>
459    
460     <pre caption="Copy over precompiled packages">
461     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/All</i>
462     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/packages/All/* /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/All/</i>
463     </pre>
464    
465     <p>
466     After this step has completed, return to the chrooted environment by pressing
467     <c>Alt-F1</c>.
468     </p>
469    
470     <p>
471     Now pay close attention! Your Portage snapshot is in place and the GRP packages
472     are ready to be used. However, Portage doesn't automagically use them unless you
473     tell it to. Luckily, this is hardly difficult: every time you are asked to
474     install a package using <c>emerge</c>, you must add <c>--usepkg</c> as an
475     option:
476     </p>
477    
478     <pre caption="Example for Installing a GRP Package">
479     <comment>(Example without GRP)</comment>
480     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
481    
482     <comment>(Example with GRP)</comment>
483     # <i>emerge --usepkg vanilla-sources</i>
484     </pre>
485    
486     <p>
487     That's all there is to it. Just don't forget to add <c>--usepkg</c>. Now
488     continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
489     </p>
490    
491    
492     </body>
493     </subsection>
494     <subsection id="grp_downloads">
495     <title>Configuring Portage for GRP Downloads</title>
496     <body>
497    
498     <p>
499     First of all, you need to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and define
500     the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c> variable so that it points to the server from which
501     you want to download the GRP packages. Please check our <uri
502     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> for the available mirrors.
503     </p>
504    
505     <pre caption="Editing /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf">
506     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
507     </pre>
508    
509     <pre caption="Setting the PORTAGE_BINHOST variable">
510     PORTAGE_BINHOST="ftp://some.mirror.com/pub/gentoo/grp/2004/athlon-xp"
511     </pre>
512    
513     <p>
514     Save and exit (by pressing Ctrl-X and confirming). With this in place, you must
515     now pay close attention. Portage will not automagically download the GRP
516     packages if you don't instruct it to. However, this isn't hard: every time you
517     are asked to install a package using <c>emerge</c>, you must add
518     <c>--getbinpkg</c> as an option:
519     </p>
520    
521     <pre caption="Example for Downloading GRP Packages">
522     <comment>(Example without downloading GRP)</comment>
523     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
524    
525     <comment>(Example with downloading GRP)</comment>
526     # <i>emerge --getbinpkg vanilla-sources</i>
527     </pre>
528    
529     <p>
530     That's all there is to it. Just don't forget to add <c>--getbinpkg</c>. Now
531     continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
532     </p>
533    
534     </body>
535     </subsection>
536     </section>
537    
538 swift 1.3 </sections>

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