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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.33 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.32 2004/03/25 22:56:38 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     <p>
27     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
29 swift 1.2 </p>
30    
31     </body>
32 swift 1.3 </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35     <body>
36    
37     <p>
38 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42     network.
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 swift 1.18 </pre>
48    
49     </body>
50     </subsection>
51     <subsection>
52 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
53 swift 1.1 <body>
54    
55     <p>
56 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
57 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
58 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
59 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
60 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
61 swift 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
65 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
66     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
67     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
68 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
72     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
73     # <i>env-update</i>
74     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
75     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
76     </pre>
77    
78     <p>
79     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
80 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
81 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
82     </p>
83    
84     </body>
85 swift 1.3 </subsection>
86     <subsection>
87 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
88     <body>
89    
90     <p>
91 swift 1.28 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
92     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
93     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
94     link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
95 swift 1.2 </p>
96    
97     <pre caption="Updating Portage">
98     # <i>emerge sync</i>
99 swift 1.27 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
100     downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
101     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
102 swift 1.13 </pre>
103    
104     <p>
105     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
106 neysx 1.15 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
107 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
108 swift 1.13 </p>
109 swift 1.8
110     </body>
111     </subsection>
112 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
113 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
114     <body>
115    
116     <p>
117     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
118     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
119     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
120     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
121     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
122     (X-server).
123     </p>
124    
125     <p>
126     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
127     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
128 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
129 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
130     </p>
131    
132     <p>
133     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
134     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
135     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
136     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
137     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
138     tweaked for GNOME.
139     </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
143     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
144     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
145     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
146     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
147     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
148     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
149     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
150     </p>
151    
152     <p>
153     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
154 swift 1.23 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
155     description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
156     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
160     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
161     </pre>
162    
163     <p>
164     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
165     and CD Recording support:
166 swift 1.21 </p>
167    
168     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
169     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
170     </pre>
171    
172     <pre caption="USE setting">
173     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
174     </pre>
175    
176     </body>
177     </subsection>
178     <subsection>
179 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
180     <body>
181    
182     <p>
183     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
184     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
185     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
186     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
187     </p>
188 swift 1.2
189     </body>
190 swift 1.1 </subsection>
191 swift 1.3 </section>
192     <section>
193 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
198     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
199     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
200     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
201     </p>
202    
203     <ul>
204     <li>
205 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
206     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
207     to Stage2</uri>)
208 swift 1.1 </li>
209     <li>
210 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
211     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
212     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
213 swift 1.1 </li>
214     <li>
215 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
216 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
217     Kernel</uri>
218 swift 1.1 </li>
219     </ul>
220    
221     </body>
222 swift 1.3 </section>
223     <section>
224     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
225 swift 1.1 <subsection>
226     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
227     <body>
228    
229     <p>
230     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
231     </p>
232    
233     <p>
234     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
235     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
236     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
237     </p>
238    
239     <p>
240     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
241 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
242 swift 1.1 </p>
243    
244     <p>
245     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
246 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
247     link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
248 swift 1.1 </p>
249    
250     </body>
251 swift 1.3 </subsection>
252     <subsection>
253 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
254     <body>
255    
256     <p>
257     If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
258     java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
259     Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
260     compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
261 swift 1.17 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
262 swift 1.1 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
263     </p>
264    
265     <p>
266     To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
267     firing up the bootstrap script.
268     </p>
269    
270     <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
271     # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
272     </pre>
273    
274 swift 1.7 <p>
275     Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
276     </p>
277    
278     <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
279     # <i>unset USE</i>
280     </pre>
281    
282 swift 1.1 </body>
283 swift 1.3 </subsection>
284     <subsection>
285 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
290 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
291     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
292 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
293 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
294     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
295 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
296 swift 1.1 </p>
297    
298     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
299     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
300     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
301     </pre>
302    
303     </body>
304 swift 1.3 </subsection>
305     <subsection>
306 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
307     <body>
308    
309     <p>
310     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
311 swift 1.4 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
312     Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
313     finish.
314 swift 1.1 </p>
315    
316     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
317     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
318     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
319 swift 1.12 </pre>
320    
321     <p>
322     If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
323 swift 1.19 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
324 swift 1.12 work fast:
325     </p>
326    
327 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
328 swift 1.12 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
329 swift 1.1 </pre>
330    
331 swift 1.4 <p>
332     Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
333     to Stage3</uri>.
334     </p>
335    
336 swift 1.1 </body>
337     </subsection>
338 swift 1.3 </section>
339     <section>
340     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
341 swift 1.1 <subsection>
342     <title>Introduction</title>
343     <body>
344    
345     <p>
346     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
347     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
348     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
349     </p>
350    
351     <p>
352     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
353 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
354     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
355 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
356     </p>
357    
358     </body>
359 swift 1.3 </subsection>
360     <subsection>
361 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
366 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
367 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
368     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
369     </p>
370    
371     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
372 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
373 swift 1.1 </pre>
374    
375     </body>
376 swift 1.3 </subsection>
377     <subsection>
378 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
379 swift 1.1 <body>
380    
381     <p>
382     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
383     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
384 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
385 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
386     </p>
387    
388     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
389 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
390 swift 1.1 </pre>
391    
392     </body>
393 swift 1.3 </subsection>
394     <subsection>
395 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
400 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
401     complete.
402 swift 1.1 </p>
403    
404     <pre caption = "Building the System">
405     # <i>emerge system</i>
406     </pre>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
410     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
411     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
412     link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
413 swift 1.28 </p>
414    
415     <p>
416 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
417     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
418 swift 1.28 </p>
419    
420     </body>
421     </subsection>
422     </section>
423    
424 swift 1.3 </sections>

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