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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.42 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.41 2004/07/30 12:47:12 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 neysx 1.37 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep -ve '^Netselect' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 swift 1.2 </pre>
25    
26     <p>
27     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
29 swift 1.2 </p>
30    
31     </body>
32 swift 1.3 </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35     <body>
36    
37     <p>
38 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42     network.
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
47     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
48 swift 1.18 </pre>
49    
50     </body>
51     </subsection>
52     <subsection>
53 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
54 swift 1.1 <body>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
58 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
59 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
60 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
61 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
62 swift 1.1 </p>
63    
64     <p>
65     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
66 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
67     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
68     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
69 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
70     </p>
71    
72     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
73     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
74     # <i>env-update</i>
75 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
76 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
77     </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
81 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
82 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
83     </p>
84    
85     </body>
86 swift 1.3 </subsection>
87     <subsection>
88 dertobi123 1.40 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
89 swift 1.2 <body>
90    
91     <p>
92 swift 1.28 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
93     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
94     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
95     link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
96 swift 1.2 </p>
97    
98 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
99 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge sync</i>
100 swift 1.38 </pre>
101    
102     <p>
103     Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
104     command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
105     downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
106     protocol.
107     </p>
108    
109 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
110 swift 1.27 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
111 swift 1.13 </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
115 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
116 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
117 swift 1.13 </p>
118 swift 1.8
119     </body>
120     </subsection>
121 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
122 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
127     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
128     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
129     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
130     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
131     (X-server).
132     </p>
133    
134     <p>
135     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
136     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
137 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
138 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
139     </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
143     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
144     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
145     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
146     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
147     tweaked for GNOME.
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
152     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
153     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
154     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
155     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
156     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
157     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
158     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
163 swift 1.23 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
164     description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
165     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
166     </p>
167    
168     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
169     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
170     </pre>
171    
172     <p>
173     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
174     and CD Recording support:
175 swift 1.21 </p>
176    
177     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
178     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
179     </pre>
180    
181     <pre caption="USE setting">
182     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
183     </pre>
184    
185     </body>
186     </subsection>
187     <subsection>
188 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
193     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
194     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
195     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
196     </p>
197 swift 1.2
198     </body>
199 swift 1.1 </subsection>
200 swift 1.3 </section>
201     <section>
202 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
203     <body>
204    
205     <p>
206     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
207     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
208     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
209     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
210     </p>
211    
212     <ul>
213     <li>
214 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
215     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
216     to Stage2</uri>)
217 swift 1.1 </li>
218     <li>
219 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
220     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
221     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
222 swift 1.1 </li>
223     <li>
224 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
225 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
226     Kernel</uri>
227 swift 1.1 </li>
228     </ul>
229    
230     </body>
231 swift 1.3 </section>
232     <section>
233     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
234 swift 1.1 <subsection>
235     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
236     <body>
237    
238     <p>
239     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
240     </p>
241    
242     <p>
243     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
244     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
245     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
246     </p>
247    
248     <p>
249     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
250 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
251 swift 1.1 </p>
252    
253     <p>
254     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
255 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
256 swift 1.41 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
257 swift 1.1 </p>
258    
259     </body>
260 swift 1.3 </subsection>
261     <subsection>
262 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
263     <body>
264    
265     <p>
266 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
267 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
268     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
269 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
270 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
271     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
272 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
273 swift 1.1 </p>
274    
275     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
276     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
277     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
278     </pre>
279    
280     </body>
281 swift 1.3 </subsection>
282 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
283 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
284     <body>
285    
286     <p>
287     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
288 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
289     takes quite some time to finish.
290 swift 1.1 </p>
291    
292     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
293     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
294     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
295 swift 1.12 </pre>
296    
297     <p>
298 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
299     to Stage3</uri>.
300     </p>
301    
302 swift 1.1 </body>
303     </subsection>
304 swift 1.3 </section>
305     <section>
306     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
307 swift 1.1 <subsection>
308     <title>Introduction</title>
309     <body>
310    
311     <p>
312     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
313     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
314     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
315     </p>
316    
317     <p>
318     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
319 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
320     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
321 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
322     </p>
323    
324     </body>
325 swift 1.3 </subsection>
326     <subsection>
327 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
328     <body>
329    
330     <p>
331     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
332 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
333 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
334     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
335     </p>
336    
337     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
338 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
339 swift 1.1 </pre>
340    
341     </body>
342 swift 1.3 </subsection>
343     <subsection>
344 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
345 swift 1.1 <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
349     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
350 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
351 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
352     </p>
353    
354     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
355 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
356 swift 1.1 </pre>
357    
358     </body>
359 swift 1.3 </subsection>
360     <subsection>
361 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
366 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
367     complete.
368 swift 1.1 </p>
369    
370     <pre caption = "Building the System">
371     # <i>emerge system</i>
372     </pre>
373    
374     <p>
375 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
376     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
377     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
378     link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
379 swift 1.28 </p>
380    
381     <p>
382 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
383     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
384 swift 1.28 </p>
385    
386     </body>
387     </subsection>
388     </section>
389    
390 swift 1.3 </sections>

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