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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.44 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.43 2004/08/02 15:54:00 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 neysx 1.44 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 swift 1.2 </pre>
25    
26     <p>
27     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
29 swift 1.2 </p>
30    
31     </body>
32 swift 1.3 </subsection>
33     <subsection>
34 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35     <body>
36    
37     <p>
38 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42     network.
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
47     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
48 swift 1.18 </pre>
49    
50     </body>
51     </subsection>
52     <subsection>
53 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
58     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
59     chrooted environment.
60     </p>
61    
62     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
63     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
64     </pre>
65    
66     </body>
67     </subsection>
68     <subsection>
69 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 swift 1.1 <body>
71    
72     <p>
73 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 swift 1.1 </p>
79    
80     <p>
81     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86     </p>
87    
88     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90     # <i>env-update</i>
91 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
92 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93     </pre>
94    
95     <p>
96     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
99     </p>
100    
101     </body>
102 swift 1.3 </subsection>
103     <subsection>
104 dertobi123 1.40 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
105 swift 1.2 <body>
106    
107     <p>
108 swift 1.28 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
109     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
110     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
111     link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
112 swift 1.2 </p>
113    
114 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
115 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 swift 1.38 </pre>
117    
118     <p>
119     Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
120     command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
121     downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
122     protocol.
123     </p>
124    
125 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
126 swift 1.27 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
127 swift 1.13 </pre>
128    
129     <p>
130     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
131 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
132 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
133 swift 1.13 </p>
134 swift 1.8
135     </body>
136     </subsection>
137 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
138 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
139     <body>
140    
141     <p>
142     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
143     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
144     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
145     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
146     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
147     (X-server).
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
152     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
153 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
154 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
155     </p>
156    
157     <p>
158     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
159     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
160     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
161     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
162     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
163     tweaked for GNOME.
164     </p>
165    
166     <p>
167     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
168     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
169     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
170     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
171     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
172     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
173     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
174     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
179 swift 1.23 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
180     description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
181     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
182     </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
185     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
186     </pre>
187    
188     <p>
189     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
190     and CD Recording support:
191 swift 1.21 </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
194     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
195     </pre>
196    
197     <pre caption="USE setting">
198     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
199     </pre>
200    
201     </body>
202     </subsection>
203     <subsection>
204 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
205     <body>
206    
207     <p>
208     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
209     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
210     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
211     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
212     </p>
213 swift 1.2
214     </body>
215 swift 1.1 </subsection>
216 swift 1.3 </section>
217     <section>
218 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
219     <body>
220    
221     <p>
222     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
223     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
224     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
225     is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
226     </p>
227    
228     <ul>
229     <li>
230 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
231     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
232     to Stage2</uri>)
233 swift 1.1 </li>
234     <li>
235 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
236     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
237     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
238 swift 1.1 </li>
239     <li>
240 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
241 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
242     Kernel</uri>
243 swift 1.1 </li>
244     </ul>
245    
246     </body>
247 swift 1.3 </section>
248     <section>
249     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
250 swift 1.1 <subsection>
251     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
252     <body>
253    
254     <p>
255     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
256     </p>
257    
258     <p>
259     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
260     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
261     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
262     </p>
263    
264     <p>
265     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
266 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
267 swift 1.1 </p>
268    
269     <p>
270     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
271 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
272 swift 1.41 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
273 swift 1.1 </p>
274    
275     </body>
276 swift 1.3 </subsection>
277     <subsection>
278 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
279     <body>
280    
281     <p>
282 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
283 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
284     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
285 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
286 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
287     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
288 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
289 swift 1.1 </p>
290    
291     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
292     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
293     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
294     </pre>
295    
296     </body>
297 swift 1.3 </subsection>
298 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
299 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
300     <body>
301    
302     <p>
303     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
304 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
305     takes quite some time to finish.
306 swift 1.1 </p>
307    
308     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
309     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
310     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
311 swift 1.12 </pre>
312    
313     <p>
314 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
315     to Stage3</uri>.
316     </p>
317    
318 swift 1.1 </body>
319     </subsection>
320 swift 1.3 </section>
321     <section>
322     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
323 swift 1.1 <subsection>
324     <title>Introduction</title>
325     <body>
326    
327     <p>
328     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
329     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
330     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
331     </p>
332    
333     <p>
334     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
335 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
336     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
337 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
338     </p>
339    
340     </body>
341 swift 1.3 </subsection>
342     <subsection>
343 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
344     <body>
345    
346     <p>
347     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
348 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
349 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
350     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
354 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
355 swift 1.1 </pre>
356    
357     </body>
358 swift 1.3 </subsection>
359     <subsection>
360 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
361 swift 1.1 <body>
362    
363     <p>
364     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
365     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
366 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
367 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
368     </p>
369    
370     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
371 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
372 swift 1.1 </pre>
373    
374     </body>
375 swift 1.3 </subsection>
376     <subsection>
377 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
382 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
383     complete.
384 swift 1.1 </p>
385    
386     <pre caption = "Building the System">
387     # <i>emerge system</i>
388     </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
392     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
393     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
394     link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
395 swift 1.28 </p>
396    
397     <p>
398 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
399     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
400 swift 1.28 </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </subsection>
404     </section>
405    
406 swift 1.3 </sections>

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