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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.52 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.51 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22 swift 1.49 <warn>
23     An error within mirrorselect might make it output garbage after the
24     GENTOO_MIRRORS statement. Please open <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path>
25     and remove the garbage at the end of the GENTOO_MIRRORS statement if applicable.
26     </warn>
27    
28 swift 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
29 neysx 1.44 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
30 swift 1.2 </pre>
31    
32     <p>
33     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
34 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
35 swift 1.2 </p>
36    
37     </body>
38 swift 1.3 </subsection>
39     <subsection>
40 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
41     <body>
42    
43     <p>
44 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
45     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
46 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
47     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
48     network.
49     </p>
50    
51     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
52 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
53     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
54 swift 1.18 </pre>
55    
56     </body>
57     </subsection>
58     <subsection>
59 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
60     <body>
61    
62     <p>
63     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
64     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
65     chrooted environment.
66     </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
69     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
70     </pre>
71    
72     </body>
73     </subsection>
74     <subsection>
75 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
76 swift 1.1 <body>
77    
78     <p>
79 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
80 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
81 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
82 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
83 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
88 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
89     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
90     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
91 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
92     </p>
93    
94     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
95     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
96     # <i>env-update</i>
97 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
98 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
99     </pre>
100    
101     <p>
102     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
103 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
104 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
105     </p>
106    
107     </body>
108 swift 1.3 </subsection>
109     <subsection>
110 dertobi123 1.40 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
111 swift 1.2 <body>
112    
113     <p>
114 cam 1.50 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
115     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this
116     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
117 swift 1.28 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
118 swift 1.2 </p>
119    
120 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
121 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122 swift 1.38 </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
126     command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
127 swift 1.51 downloads and installs a Portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
128 swift 1.38 protocol.
129     </p>
130    
131 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
132 swift 1.27 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
133 swift 1.13 </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
137 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
138 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
139 swift 1.13 </p>
140 swift 1.8
141     </body>
142     </subsection>
143 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
144 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
149     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
150     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
151     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
152     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
153     (X-server).
154     </p>
155    
156     <p>
157     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
158     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
159 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
160 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
161     </p>
162    
163     <p>
164     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
165     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
166     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
167     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
168     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
169     tweaked for GNOME.
170     </p>
171    
172     <p>
173     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
174     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
175     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
176     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
177     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
178     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
179     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
180     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
181     </p>
182    
183     <p>
184     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
185 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
186     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
187 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
188     </p>
189    
190     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
191     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
192 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
193 swift 1.23 </pre>
194    
195     <p>
196     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
197     and CD Recording support:
198 swift 1.21 </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
201     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
202     </pre>
203    
204     <pre caption="USE setting">
205     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
206     </pre>
207    
208     </body>
209     </subsection>
210     <subsection>
211 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
212     <body>
213    
214     <p>
215     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
216     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
217     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
218     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
219     </p>
220 swift 1.2
221     </body>
222 swift 1.1 </subsection>
223 swift 1.3 </section>
224     <section>
225 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
226     <body>
227    
228     <p>
229     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
230     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
231     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
232 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
233 swift 1.1 </p>
234    
235     <ul>
236     <li>
237 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
238     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
239     to Stage2</uri>)
240 swift 1.1 </li>
241     <li>
242 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
243     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
244     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
245 swift 1.1 </li>
246     <li>
247 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
248 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
249     Kernel</uri>
250 swift 1.1 </li>
251     </ul>
252    
253     </body>
254 swift 1.3 </section>
255     <section>
256     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
257 swift 1.1 <subsection>
258     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
259     <body>
260    
261     <p>
262     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
263     </p>
264    
265     <p>
266     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
267     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
268     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
269     </p>
270    
271     <p>
272     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
273 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
274 swift 1.1 </p>
275    
276     <p>
277     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
278 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
279 swift 1.41 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
280 swift 1.1 </p>
281    
282     </body>
283 swift 1.3 </subsection>
284     <subsection>
285 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
290 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
291     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
292 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
293 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
294     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
295 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
296 swift 1.1 </p>
297    
298     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
299     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
300 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
301 swift 1.1 </pre>
302    
303     </body>
304 swift 1.3 </subsection>
305 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
306 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
307     <body>
308    
309     <p>
310     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
311 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
312     takes quite some time to finish.
313 swift 1.1 </p>
314    
315     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
316     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
317 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
318 swift 1.12 </pre>
319    
320     <p>
321 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
322     to Stage3</uri>.
323     </p>
324    
325 swift 1.1 </body>
326     </subsection>
327 swift 1.3 </section>
328     <section>
329     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
330 swift 1.1 <subsection>
331     <title>Introduction</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
336     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
337     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
342 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
343     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
344 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
345     </p>
346    
347     </body>
348 swift 1.3 </subsection>
349     <subsection>
350 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
351     <body>
352    
353     <p>
354     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
355 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
356 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
357     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
361 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
362 swift 1.1 </pre>
363    
364     </body>
365 swift 1.3 </subsection>
366     <subsection>
367 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
368 swift 1.1 <body>
369    
370     <p>
371     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
372     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
373 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
374 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
375     </p>
376    
377     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
378 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
379 swift 1.1 </pre>
380    
381     </body>
382 swift 1.3 </subsection>
383     <subsection>
384 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
385     <body>
386    
387     <p>
388     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
389 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
390     complete.
391 swift 1.1 </p>
392    
393     <pre caption = "Building the System">
394     # <i>emerge system</i>
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
399     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
400     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
401 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
402 swift 1.28 </p>
403    
404     <p>
405 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
406     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
407 swift 1.28 </p>
408    
409     </body>
410     </subsection>
411     </section>
412    
413 swift 1.3 </sections>

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