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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.56 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.55 2004/11/06 15:07:49 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11     <version>1.55</version>
12     <date>November 6, 2004</date>
13    
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
24 swift 1.2 </p>
25    
26 swift 1.49 <warn>
27     An error within mirrorselect might make it output garbage after the
28     GENTOO_MIRRORS statement. Please open <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path>
29     and remove the garbage at the end of the GENTOO_MIRRORS statement if applicable.
30     </warn>
31    
32 swift 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
33 neysx 1.44 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
34 swift 1.2 </pre>
35    
36     <p>
37     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
38 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
39 swift 1.2 </p>
40    
41     </body>
42 swift 1.3 </subsection>
43     <subsection>
44 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
45     <body>
46    
47     <p>
48 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
49     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
50 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
51     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
52     network.
53     </p>
54    
55     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
56 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
57     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
58 swift 1.18 </pre>
59    
60     </body>
61     </subsection>
62     <subsection>
63 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
64     <body>
65    
66     <p>
67     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
68     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
69     chrooted environment.
70     </p>
71    
72     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
73     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
74     </pre>
75    
76     </body>
77     </subsection>
78     <subsection>
79 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
80 swift 1.1 <body>
81    
82     <p>
83 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
84 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
85 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
86 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
87 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
88 swift 1.1 </p>
89    
90     <p>
91     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
92 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
93     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
94     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
95 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
96     </p>
97    
98     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
99     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
100     # <i>env-update</i>
101 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
102 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
103     </pre>
104    
105     <p>
106     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
107 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
108 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
109     </p>
110    
111     </body>
112 swift 1.3 </subsection>
113     <subsection>
114 dertobi123 1.40 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
115 swift 1.2 <body>
116    
117     <p>
118 cam 1.50 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
119     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this
120     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
121 swift 1.28 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
122 swift 1.2 </p>
123    
124 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
125 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
126 swift 1.38 </pre>
127    
128     <p>
129     Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
130     command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
131 swift 1.51 downloads and installs a Portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
132 swift 1.38 protocol.
133     </p>
134    
135 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
136 swift 1.27 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
137 swift 1.13 </pre>
138    
139     <p>
140     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
141 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
142 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
143 swift 1.13 </p>
144 swift 1.8
145     </body>
146     </subsection>
147 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
148 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
149     <body>
150    
151     <p>
152     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
153     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
154     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
155     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
156     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
157     (X-server).
158     </p>
159    
160     <p>
161     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
162     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
163 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
164 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
165     </p>
166    
167     <p>
168     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
169     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
170     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
171     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
172     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
173     tweaked for GNOME.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
178     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
179     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
180     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
181     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
182     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
183     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
184     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
185     </p>
186    
187     <p>
188     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
189 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
190     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
191 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
192     </p>
193    
194     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
195     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
196 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
197 swift 1.23 </pre>
198    
199     <p>
200     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
201     and CD Recording support:
202 swift 1.21 </p>
203    
204     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
205     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
206     </pre>
207    
208     <pre caption="USE setting">
209     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
210     </pre>
211    
212 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
213     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
214 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
215     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
216 dertobi123 1.53 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
217     </p>
218    
219     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
220 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
221     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
222 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
226     </p>
227    
228     <pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
229     en_US/ISO-8859-1
230     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
231     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
232     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
233     </pre>
234    
235 swift 1.21 </body>
236     </subsection>
237     <subsection>
238 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
243     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
244     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
245     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
246     </p>
247 swift 1.2
248     </body>
249 swift 1.1 </subsection>
250 swift 1.3 </section>
251     <section>
252 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
253     <body>
254    
255     <p>
256     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
257     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
258     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
259 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
260 swift 1.1 </p>
261    
262     <ul>
263     <li>
264 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
265     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
266     to Stage2</uri>)
267 swift 1.1 </li>
268     <li>
269 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
270     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
271     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
272 swift 1.1 </li>
273     <li>
274 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
275 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
276     Kernel</uri>
277 swift 1.1 </li>
278     </ul>
279    
280     </body>
281 swift 1.3 </section>
282     <section>
283     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
284 swift 1.1 <subsection>
285     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
290     </p>
291    
292     <p>
293     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
294     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
295     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
296     </p>
297    
298     <p>
299     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
300 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
301 swift 1.1 </p>
302    
303     <p>
304     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
305 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
306 swift 1.41 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
307 swift 1.1 </p>
308    
309     </body>
310 swift 1.3 </subsection>
311     <subsection>
312 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
313     <body>
314    
315     <p>
316 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
317 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
318     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
319 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
320 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
321     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
322 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
323 swift 1.1 </p>
324    
325     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
326     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
327 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
328 swift 1.1 </pre>
329    
330     </body>
331 swift 1.3 </subsection>
332 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
333 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
334     <body>
335    
336     <p>
337     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
338 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
339     takes quite some time to finish.
340 swift 1.1 </p>
341    
342     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
343     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
344 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
345 swift 1.12 </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
349     to Stage3</uri>.
350     </p>
351    
352 swift 1.1 </body>
353     </subsection>
354 swift 1.3 </section>
355     <section>
356     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
357 swift 1.1 <subsection>
358     <title>Introduction</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
363     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
364     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
369 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
370     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
371 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
372     </p>
373    
374     </body>
375 swift 1.3 </subsection>
376     <subsection>
377 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
382 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
383 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
384     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
385     </p>
386    
387     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
388 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
389 swift 1.1 </pre>
390    
391     </body>
392 swift 1.3 </subsection>
393     <subsection>
394 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
395 swift 1.1 <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
399     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
400 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
401 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
405 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
406 swift 1.1 </pre>
407    
408     </body>
409 swift 1.3 </subsection>
410     <subsection>
411 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
412     <body>
413    
414     <p>
415     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
416 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
417     complete.
418 swift 1.1 </p>
419    
420     <pre caption = "Building the System">
421     # <i>emerge system</i>
422     </pre>
423    
424     <p>
425 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
426     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
427     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
428 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
429 swift 1.28 </p>
430    
431     <p>
432 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
433     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
434 swift 1.28 </p>
435    
436     </body>
437     </subsection>
438     </section>
439    
440 swift 1.3 </sections>

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