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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 bennyc 1.60 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.59 2004/11/21 17:55:48 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 bennyc 1.60 <version>1.57</version>
12     <date>2004-11-22</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 swift 1.57 and source code (of course this requires a working network connection):
24 swift 1.2 </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
27 neysx 1.59 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o |grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
28 swift 1.2 </pre>
29    
30     <p>
31     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
32 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     </body>
36 swift 1.3 </subsection>
37     <subsection>
38 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
43     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
44 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
45     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
46     network.
47     </p>
48    
49     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
50 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
51     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
52 swift 1.18 </pre>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     <subsection>
57 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
58     <body>
59    
60     <p>
61     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
62     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
63     chrooted environment.
64     </p>
65    
66     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
67     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
68     </pre>
69    
70     </body>
71     </subsection>
72     <subsection>
73 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
74 swift 1.1 <body>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
78 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
79 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
80 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
81 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     <p>
85     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
86 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
87     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
88     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
89 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
90     </p>
91    
92     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
93     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
94     # <i>env-update</i>
95 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
96 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
97     </pre>
98    
99     <p>
100     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
101 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
102 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
103     </p>
104    
105     </body>
106 swift 1.3 </subsection>
107     <subsection>
108 dertobi123 1.40 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
109 swift 1.2 <body>
110    
111     <p>
112 cam 1.50 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
113     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this
114     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
115 swift 1.28 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
116 swift 1.2 </p>
117    
118 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
119 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
120 swift 1.38 </pre>
121    
122     <p>
123     Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
124     command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
125 swift 1.51 downloads and installs a Portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
126 swift 1.38 protocol.
127     </p>
128    
129 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
130 swift 1.27 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
131 swift 1.13 </pre>
132    
133     <p>
134     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
135 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
136 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
137 swift 1.13 </p>
138 swift 1.8
139     </body>
140     </subsection>
141 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
142 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
143     <body>
144    
145 swift 1.57 <warn>
146     Do not make any modifications to the USE variable if you are performing a stage3
147     with GRP installation. You can alter the USE variable after having installed the
148     packages you want. Gremlins are known to attack your system if you ignore this
149     warning!
150     </warn>
151    
152 swift 1.21 <p>
153     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
154     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
155     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
156     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
157     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
158     (X-server).
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
163     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
164 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
165 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
166     </p>
167    
168     <p>
169     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
170     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
171     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
172     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
173     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
174     tweaked for GNOME.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
179     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
180     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
181     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
182     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
183     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
184     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
185     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
186     </p>
187    
188     <p>
189     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
190 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
191     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
192 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
193     </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
196     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
197 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
198 swift 1.23 </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
202     and CD Recording support:
203 swift 1.21 </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
206     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
207     </pre>
208    
209     <pre caption="USE setting">
210     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
211     </pre>
212    
213 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
214     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
215 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
216     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
217 dertobi123 1.53 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
218     </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
221 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
222     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
223 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
224    
225     <p>
226     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
227     </p>
228    
229 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
230     nano -w /etc/locales.build
231     </pre>
232    
233     <pre caption="Specify your locales">
234 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
235     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
236     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
237     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
238     </pre>
239    
240 swift 1.21 </body>
241     </subsection>
242     <subsection>
243 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
248     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
249     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
250     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
251     </p>
252 swift 1.2
253     </body>
254 swift 1.1 </subsection>
255 swift 1.3 </section>
256     <section>
257 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
258     <body>
259    
260     <p>
261     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
262     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
263     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
264 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
265 swift 1.1 </p>
266    
267     <ul>
268     <li>
269 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
270     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
271     to Stage2</uri>)
272 swift 1.1 </li>
273     <li>
274 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
275     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
276     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
277 swift 1.1 </li>
278     <li>
279 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
280 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
281     Kernel</uri>
282 swift 1.1 </li>
283     </ul>
284    
285     </body>
286 swift 1.3 </section>
287     <section>
288     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
289 swift 1.1 <subsection>
290     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
295     </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
299     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
300     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
301     </p>
302    
303     <p>
304     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
305 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
306 swift 1.1 </p>
307    
308     <p>
309     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
310 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
311 swift 1.41 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
312 swift 1.1 </p>
313    
314     </body>
315 swift 1.3 </subsection>
316     <subsection>
317 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
318     <body>
319    
320     <p>
321 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
322 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
323     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
324 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
325 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
326     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
327 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
328 swift 1.1 </p>
329    
330     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
331     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
332 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
333 swift 1.1 </pre>
334    
335     </body>
336 swift 1.3 </subsection>
337 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
338 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
339     <body>
340    
341     <p>
342     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
343 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
344     takes quite some time to finish.
345 swift 1.1 </p>
346    
347     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
348     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
349 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
350 swift 1.12 </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
354     to Stage3</uri>.
355     </p>
356    
357 swift 1.1 </body>
358     </subsection>
359 swift 1.3 </section>
360     <section>
361     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
362 swift 1.1 <subsection>
363     <title>Introduction</title>
364     <body>
365    
366     <p>
367     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
368     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
369     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
370     </p>
371    
372     <p>
373     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
374 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
375     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
376 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
377     </p>
378    
379     </body>
380 swift 1.3 </subsection>
381     <subsection>
382 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
387 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
388 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
389     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
390     </p>
391    
392     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
393 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
394 swift 1.1 </pre>
395    
396     </body>
397 swift 1.3 </subsection>
398     <subsection>
399 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
400 swift 1.1 <body>
401    
402     <p>
403     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
404     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
405 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
406 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
407     </p>
408    
409     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
410 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
411 swift 1.1 </pre>
412    
413     </body>
414 swift 1.3 </subsection>
415     <subsection>
416 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
417     <body>
418    
419     <p>
420     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
421 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
422     complete.
423 swift 1.1 </p>
424    
425     <pre caption = "Building the System">
426     # <i>emerge system</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     <p>
430 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
431     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
432     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
433 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
434 swift 1.28 </p>
435    
436     <p>
437 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
438     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
439 swift 1.28 </p>
440    
441     </body>
442     </subsection>
443     </section>
444    
445 swift 1.3 </sections>

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