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Separation of Gentoo Handbook into Current and 2004.3

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.69 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.18 2004/12/28 17:57:18 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.69 <version>1.64</version>
12     <date>2005-01-04</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 swift 1.57 and source code (of course this requires a working network connection):
24 swift 1.2 </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
27 neysx 1.59 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o |grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
28 swift 1.2 </pre>
29    
30     <p>
31     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
32 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     </body>
36 swift 1.3 </subsection>
37     <subsection>
38 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
43     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
44 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
45     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
46     network.
47     </p>
48    
49     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
50 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
51     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
52 swift 1.18 </pre>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     <subsection>
57 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
58     <body>
59    
60     <p>
61     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
62     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
63     chrooted environment.
64     </p>
65    
66     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
67     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
68     </pre>
69    
70     </body>
71     </subsection>
72     <subsection>
73 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
74 swift 1.1 <body>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
78 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
79 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
80 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
81 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     <p>
85     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
86 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
87     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
88     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
89 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
90     </p>
91    
92     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
93     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
94     # <i>env-update</i>
95 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
96 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
97     </pre>
98    
99     <p>
100     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
101 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
102 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
103     </p>
104    
105     </body>
106 swift 1.3 </subsection>
107     <subsection>
108 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
109 swift 1.2 <body>
110    
111     <p>
112 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
113     --sync</c> does this for you.
114 swift 1.2 </p>
115    
116 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
117 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
118 swift 1.13 </pre>
119    
120     <p>
121     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
122 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
123 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
124 swift 1.13 </p>
125 swift 1.8
126     </body>
127     </subsection>
128 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
129 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
130     <body>
131    
132     <p>
133     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
134     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
135     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
136     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
137     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
138     (X-server).
139     </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
143     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
144 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
145 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
146     </p>
147    
148     <p>
149     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
150     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
151     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
152     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
153     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
154     tweaked for GNOME.
155     </p>
156    
157     <p>
158 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
159     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
160     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
161     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
162     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
163 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
164     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
165     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
166     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
167     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
168     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
169     </p>
170    
171     <p>
172     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
173 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
174     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
175 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
179     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
180 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
181 swift 1.23 </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
185     and CD Recording support:
186 swift 1.21 </p>
187    
188     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
189     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
190     </pre>
191    
192     <pre caption="USE setting">
193     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
194     </pre>
195    
196 swift 1.69 </body>
197     </subsection>
198     <subsection>
199     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
200     <body>
201    
202 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
203     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
204 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
205     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
206 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
207     if you know what locales to choose.
208 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
209    
210     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
211 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
212     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
213 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
214    
215     <p>
216     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
217     </p>
218    
219 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
220 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
221 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
222    
223 swift 1.67 <p>
224     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
225     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
226     </p>
227    
228 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
229 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
230     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
231     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
232     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
233     </pre>
234    
235 swift 1.21 </body>
236     </subsection>
237 swift 1.3 </section>
238     <section>
239 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
240     <body>
241    
242     <p>
243     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
244     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
245     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
246 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
247 swift 1.1 </p>
248    
249     <ul>
250     <li>
251 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
252     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
253     to Stage2</uri>)
254 swift 1.1 </li>
255     <li>
256 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
257     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
258     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
259 swift 1.1 </li>
260     <li>
261 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
262 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
263     Kernel</uri>
264 swift 1.1 </li>
265     </ul>
266    
267     </body>
268 swift 1.3 </section>
269     <section>
270     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
271 swift 1.1 <subsection>
272     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
273     <body>
274    
275     <p>
276     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
277     </p>
278    
279     <p>
280     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
281     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
282     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
283     </p>
284    
285     <p>
286     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
287 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
288 swift 1.1 </p>
289    
290     <p>
291 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
292     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
293     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
294 swift 1.1 </p>
295    
296     </body>
297 swift 1.3 </subsection>
298     <subsection>
299 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
300     <body>
301    
302     <p>
303 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
304 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
305 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
306 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
307     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
308 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
312     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
313 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
314 swift 1.1 </pre>
315    
316     </body>
317 swift 1.3 </subsection>
318 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
319 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
320     <body>
321    
322     <p>
323     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
324 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
325     takes quite some time to finish.
326 swift 1.1 </p>
327    
328     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
329     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
330 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
331 swift 1.12 </pre>
332    
333     <p>
334 swift 1.63 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
335     fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
336     When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
337     </p>
338    
339     <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
340     # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
341 swift 1.66 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
342 swift 1.63 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
343     </pre>
344    
345     <p>
346 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
347     to Stage3</uri>.
348     </p>
349    
350 swift 1.1 </body>
351     </subsection>
352 swift 1.3 </section>
353     <section>
354     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
355 swift 1.1 <subsection>
356     <title>Introduction</title>
357     <body>
358    
359     <p>
360     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
361     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
362     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>
366     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
367 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
368     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
369 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
370     </p>
371    
372     </body>
373 swift 1.3 </subsection>
374     <subsection>
375 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
380 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
381 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
382     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
383     </p>
384    
385     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
386 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
387 swift 1.1 </pre>
388    
389     </body>
390 swift 1.3 </subsection>
391     <subsection>
392 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
393 swift 1.1 <body>
394    
395     <p>
396     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
397     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
398 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
399 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
403 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
404 swift 1.1 </pre>
405    
406     </body>
407 swift 1.3 </subsection>
408     <subsection>
409 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
410     <body>
411    
412     <p>
413     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
414 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
415     complete.
416 swift 1.1 </p>
417    
418     <pre caption = "Building the System">
419     # <i>emerge system</i>
420     </pre>
421    
422     <p>
423 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
424     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
425     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
426 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
427 swift 1.28 </p>
428    
429     <p>
430 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
431     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
432 swift 1.28 </p>
433    
434     </body>
435     </subsection>
436     </section>
437    
438 swift 1.3 </sections>

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