/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.71 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Feb 25 09:13:41 2005 UTC (9 years, 1 month ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.70: +6 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#78631 - Do not select IPv6 mirrors with mirrorselect

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.71 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.70 2005/02/25 09:01:15 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.71 <version>1.66</version>
12 swift 1.70 <date>2005-02-25</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 swift 1.2 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133     --sync</c> does this for you.
134 swift 1.2 </p>
135    
136 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 swift 1.13 </pre>
139    
140     <p>
141     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
142 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
143 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
144 swift 1.13 </p>
145 swift 1.8
146     </body>
147     </subsection>
148 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
149 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
154     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
155     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
156     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
157     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
158     (X-server).
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
163     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
164 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
165 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
166     </p>
167    
168     <p>
169     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
170     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
171     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
172     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
173     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
174     tweaked for GNOME.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
179     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
180     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
181     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
182     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
183 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
184     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
185     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
186     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
187     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
188     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
189     </p>
190    
191     <p>
192     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
193 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
194     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
195 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
196     </p>
197    
198     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
199     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
200 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
201 swift 1.23 </pre>
202    
203     <p>
204     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
205     and CD Recording support:
206 swift 1.21 </p>
207    
208     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
209     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
210     </pre>
211    
212     <pre caption="USE setting">
213     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
214     </pre>
215    
216 swift 1.69 </body>
217     </subsection>
218     <subsection>
219     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
220     <body>
221    
222 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
223     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
224 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
225     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
226 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
227     if you know what locales to choose.
228 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
229    
230     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
231 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
232     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
233 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
234    
235     <p>
236     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
237     </p>
238    
239 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
240 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
241 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
242    
243 swift 1.67 <p>
244     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
245     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
246     </p>
247    
248 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
249 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
250     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
251     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
252     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
253     </pre>
254    
255 swift 1.21 </body>
256     </subsection>
257 swift 1.3 </section>
258     <section>
259 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
260     <body>
261    
262     <p>
263     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
264     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
265     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
266 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
267 swift 1.1 </p>
268    
269     <ul>
270     <li>
271 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
272     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
273     to Stage2</uri>)
274 swift 1.1 </li>
275     <li>
276 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
277     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
278     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
279 swift 1.1 </li>
280     <li>
281 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
282 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
283     Kernel</uri>
284 swift 1.1 </li>
285     </ul>
286    
287     </body>
288 swift 1.3 </section>
289     <section>
290     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
291 swift 1.1 <subsection>
292     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
293     <body>
294    
295     <p>
296     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
297     </p>
298    
299     <p>
300     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
301     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
302     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
303     </p>
304    
305     <p>
306     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
307 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
308 swift 1.1 </p>
309    
310     <p>
311 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
312     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
313     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
314 swift 1.1 </p>
315    
316     </body>
317 swift 1.3 </subsection>
318     <subsection>
319 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
320     <body>
321    
322     <p>
323 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
324 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
325 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
326 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
327     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
328 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
329 swift 1.1 </p>
330    
331     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
332     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
333 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
334 swift 1.1 </pre>
335    
336     </body>
337 swift 1.3 </subsection>
338 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
339 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
340     <body>
341    
342     <p>
343     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
344 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
345     takes quite some time to finish.
346 swift 1.1 </p>
347    
348     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
349     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
350 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
351 swift 1.12 </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354 swift 1.63 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
355     fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
356     When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
357     </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
360     # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
361 swift 1.66 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
362 swift 1.63 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
363     </pre>
364    
365     <p>
366 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
367     to Stage3</uri>.
368     </p>
369    
370 swift 1.1 </body>
371     </subsection>
372 swift 1.3 </section>
373     <section>
374     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
375 swift 1.1 <subsection>
376     <title>Introduction</title>
377     <body>
378    
379     <p>
380     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
381     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
382     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
383     </p>
384    
385     <p>
386     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
387 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
388     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
389 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
390     </p>
391    
392     </body>
393 swift 1.3 </subsection>
394     <subsection>
395 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
400 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
401 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
402     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
403     </p>
404    
405     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
406 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
407 swift 1.1 </pre>
408    
409     </body>
410 swift 1.3 </subsection>
411     <subsection>
412 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
413 swift 1.1 <body>
414    
415     <p>
416     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
417     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
418 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
419 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
420     </p>
421    
422     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
423 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
424 swift 1.1 </pre>
425    
426     </body>
427 swift 1.3 </subsection>
428     <subsection>
429 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
430     <body>
431    
432     <p>
433     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
434 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
435     complete.
436 swift 1.1 </p>
437    
438     <pre caption = "Building the System">
439     # <i>emerge system</i>
440     </pre>
441    
442     <p>
443 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
444     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
445     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
446 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
447 swift 1.28 </p>
448    
449     <p>
450 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
451     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
452 swift 1.28 </p>
453    
454     </body>
455     </subsection>
456     </section>
457    
458 swift 1.3 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20