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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.72 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.71 2005/02/25 09:13:41 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.72 <version>2.00</version>
12     <date>2005-03-28</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 swift 1.2 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133     --sync</c> does this for you.
134 swift 1.2 </p>
135    
136 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 swift 1.13 </pre>
139    
140     <p>
141     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
142 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
143 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
144 swift 1.13 </p>
145 swift 1.8
146     </body>
147     </subsection>
148 swift 1.72 <subsection>
149     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153     First, a small definition is in place.
154     </p>
155    
156     <p>
157     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
158     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
159     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
160     Gentoo developers.
161     </p>
162    
163     <p>
164     Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, recently,
165     x86, hppa and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel
166     and one for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the
167     integration of the 2.6 kernels.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     You can see what profile you are currently using by issuing the following
172     command:
173     </p>
174    
175     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
176     # <i>ls -l /etc/make.profile</i>
177     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 48 Mar 7 11:55 /etc/make.profile ->
178     ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0
179     </pre>
180    
181     <p>
182     If you are using one of the abovementioned three architectures, you will see an
183     additional profile in the one listed by the <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
184     </p>
185    
186     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
187     # <i>ls -F /etc/make.profile/</i>
188     2.4/ packages parent virtuals
189     </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     As you can see, in the above example there is a 2.4 subdirectory. This means
193     that the current profile uses the 2.6 kernel; if you want a 2.4-based system,
194     you need to relink your <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
195     </p>
196    
197     <pre caption="Relinking the profile">
198     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
199     </pre>
200    
201     </body>
202     </subsection>
203 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
204 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
205     <body>
206    
207     <p>
208     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
209     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
210     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
211     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
212     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
213     (X-server).
214     </p>
215    
216     <p>
217     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
218     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
219 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
220 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
221     </p>
222    
223     <p>
224     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
225     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
226     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
227     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
228     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
229     tweaked for GNOME.
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
234     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
235     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
236     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
237     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
238 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
239     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
240     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
241     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
242     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
243     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
244     </p>
245    
246     <p>
247     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
248 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
249     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
250 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
254     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
255 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
256 swift 1.23 </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
260     and CD Recording support:
261 swift 1.21 </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
264     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
265     </pre>
266    
267     <pre caption="USE setting">
268     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
269     </pre>
270    
271 swift 1.69 </body>
272     </subsection>
273     <subsection>
274     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
275     <body>
276    
277 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
278     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
279 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
280     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
281 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
282     if you know what locales to choose.
283 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
284    
285     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
286 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
287     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
288 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
289    
290     <p>
291     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
292     </p>
293    
294 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
295 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
296 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
297    
298 swift 1.67 <p>
299     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
300     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
301     </p>
302    
303 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
304 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
305     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
306     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
307     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
308     </pre>
309    
310 swift 1.21 </body>
311     </subsection>
312 swift 1.3 </section>
313     <section>
314 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
315     <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
319     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
320     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
321 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
322 swift 1.1 </p>
323    
324     <ul>
325     <li>
326 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
327     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
328     to Stage2</uri>)
329 swift 1.1 </li>
330     <li>
331 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
332     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
333     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
334 swift 1.1 </li>
335     <li>
336 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
337 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
338     Kernel</uri>
339 swift 1.1 </li>
340     </ul>
341    
342     </body>
343 swift 1.3 </section>
344     <section>
345     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
346 swift 1.1 <subsection>
347     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
348     <body>
349    
350     <p>
351     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
356     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
357     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
358     </p>
359    
360     <p>
361     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
362 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
363 swift 1.1 </p>
364    
365     <p>
366 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
367     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
368     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
369 swift 1.1 </p>
370    
371     </body>
372 swift 1.3 </subsection>
373     <subsection>
374 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
375     <body>
376    
377     <p>
378 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
379 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
380 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
381 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
382     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
383 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
384 swift 1.1 </p>
385    
386     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
387     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
388 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
389 swift 1.1 </pre>
390    
391     </body>
392 swift 1.3 </subsection>
393 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
394 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
399 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
400     takes quite some time to finish.
401 swift 1.1 </p>
402    
403     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
404     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
405 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
406 swift 1.12 </pre>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.63 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
410     fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
411     When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
412     </p>
413    
414     <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
415     # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
416 swift 1.66 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
417 swift 1.63 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
418     </pre>
419    
420     <p>
421 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
422     to Stage3</uri>.
423     </p>
424    
425 swift 1.1 </body>
426     </subsection>
427 swift 1.3 </section>
428     <section>
429     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
430 swift 1.1 <subsection>
431     <title>Introduction</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
436     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
437     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
438     </p>
439    
440     <p>
441     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
442 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
443     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
444 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
445     </p>
446    
447     </body>
448 swift 1.3 </subsection>
449     <subsection>
450 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
451     <body>
452    
453     <p>
454     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
455 swift 1.72 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
456     built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
457     <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
458 swift 1.1 </p>
459    
460     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
461 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
462 swift 1.1 </pre>
463    
464 swift 1.72 <p>
465     Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
466     <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient. If you didn't touch the
467     USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
468     </p>
469    
470 swift 1.1 </body>
471 swift 1.3 </subsection>
472     <subsection>
473 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
474 swift 1.1 <body>
475    
476     <p>
477     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
478     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
479 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
480 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
481     </p>
482    
483     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
484 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
485 swift 1.1 </pre>
486    
487     </body>
488 swift 1.3 </subsection>
489     <subsection>
490 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
491     <body>
492    
493     <p>
494 swift 1.72 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
495     go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
496 swift 1.4 complete.
497 swift 1.1 </p>
498    
499     <pre caption = "Building the System">
500 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
501 swift 1.1 </pre>
502    
503     <p>
504 swift 1.72 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
505     <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
506     </p>
507    
508     <p>
509 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
510     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
511     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
512 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
513 swift 1.28 </p>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
517     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
518 swift 1.28 </p>
519    
520     </body>
521     </subsection>
522     </section>
523    
524 swift 1.3 </sections>

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