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Inform user about userlocales not functioning for bootstrapping

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.74 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.73 2005/03/28 13:30:02 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.74 <version>2.2</version>
12     <date>2005-03-29</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 swift 1.2 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133     --sync</c> does this for you.
134 swift 1.2 </p>
135    
136 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 swift 1.13 </pre>
139    
140     <p>
141     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
142 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
143 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
144 swift 1.13 </p>
145 swift 1.8
146     </body>
147     </subsection>
148 swift 1.72 <subsection>
149     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153     First, a small definition is in place.
154     </p>
155    
156     <p>
157     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
158     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
159     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
160     Gentoo developers.
161     </p>
162    
163     <p>
164     Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, recently,
165     x86, hppa and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel
166     and one for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the
167     integration of the 2.6 kernels.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     You can see what profile you are currently using by issuing the following
172     command:
173     </p>
174    
175     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
176     # <i>ls -l /etc/make.profile</i>
177     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 48 Mar 7 11:55 /etc/make.profile ->
178     ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0
179     </pre>
180    
181     <p>
182     If you are using one of the abovementioned three architectures, you will see an
183     additional profile in the one listed by the <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
184     </p>
185    
186     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
187     # <i>ls -F /etc/make.profile/</i>
188     2.4/ packages parent virtuals
189     </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     As you can see, in the above example there is a 2.4 subdirectory. This means
193     that the current profile uses the 2.6 kernel; if you want a 2.4-based system,
194     you need to relink your <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
195     </p>
196    
197     <pre caption="Relinking the profile">
198     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
199     </pre>
200    
201     </body>
202     </subsection>
203 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
204 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
205     <body>
206    
207     <p>
208     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
209     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
210     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
211     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
212     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
213     (X-server).
214     </p>
215    
216     <p>
217     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
218     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
219 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
220 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
221     </p>
222    
223     <p>
224     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
225     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
226     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
227     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
228     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
229     tweaked for GNOME.
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
234     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
235     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
236     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
237     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
238 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
239     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
240     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
241     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
242     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
243     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
244     </p>
245    
246     <p>
247     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
248 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
249     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
250 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
254     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
255 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
256 swift 1.23 </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
260     and CD Recording support:
261 swift 1.21 </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
264     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
265     </pre>
266    
267     <pre caption="USE setting">
268     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
269     </pre>
270    
271 swift 1.69 </body>
272     </subsection>
273     <subsection>
274     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
275     <body>
276    
277 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
278     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
279 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
280     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
281 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
282 swift 1.74 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
283     but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
284 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
285    
286     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
287 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
288     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
289 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
290    
291     <p>
292     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
293     </p>
294    
295 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
296 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
297 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
298    
299 swift 1.67 <p>
300     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
301     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
302     </p>
303    
304 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
305 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
306     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
307     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
308     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
309     </pre>
310    
311 swift 1.21 </body>
312     </subsection>
313 swift 1.3 </section>
314     <section>
315 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
316     <body>
317    
318     <p>
319     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
320     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
321     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
322 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
323 swift 1.1 </p>
324    
325     <ul>
326     <li>
327 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
328     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
329     to Stage2</uri>)
330 swift 1.1 </li>
331     <li>
332 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
333     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
334     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
335 swift 1.1 </li>
336     <li>
337 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
338 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
339     Kernel</uri>
340 swift 1.1 </li>
341     </ul>
342    
343     </body>
344 swift 1.3 </section>
345     <section>
346     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
347 swift 1.1 <subsection>
348     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
357     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
358     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
359     </p>
360    
361     <p>
362     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
363 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
364 swift 1.1 </p>
365    
366     <p>
367 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
368     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
369     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
370 swift 1.1 </p>
371    
372     </body>
373 swift 1.3 </subsection>
374     <subsection>
375 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
380 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
381 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
382 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
383     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
384 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
385 swift 1.1 </p>
386    
387     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
388     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
389 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
390 swift 1.1 </pre>
391    
392     </body>
393 swift 1.3 </subsection>
394 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
395 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
400 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
401     takes quite some time to finish.
402 swift 1.1 </p>
403    
404     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
405     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
406 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
407 swift 1.12 </pre>
408    
409     <p>
410 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
411     to Stage3</uri>.
412     </p>
413    
414 swift 1.1 </body>
415     </subsection>
416 swift 1.3 </section>
417     <section>
418     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
419 swift 1.1 <subsection>
420     <title>Introduction</title>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
425     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
426     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
427     </p>
428    
429     <p>
430     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
431 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
432     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
433 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
434     </p>
435    
436     </body>
437 swift 1.3 </subsection>
438     <subsection>
439 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
440     <body>
441    
442     <p>
443     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
444 swift 1.72 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
445     built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
446     <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
447 swift 1.1 </p>
448    
449     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
450 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
451 swift 1.1 </pre>
452    
453 swift 1.72 <p>
454     Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
455     <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient. If you didn't touch the
456     USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
457     </p>
458    
459 swift 1.1 </body>
460 swift 1.3 </subsection>
461     <subsection>
462 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
463 swift 1.1 <body>
464    
465     <p>
466     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
467     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
468 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
469 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
470     </p>
471    
472     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
473 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
474 swift 1.1 </pre>
475    
476     </body>
477 swift 1.3 </subsection>
478     <subsection>
479 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
480     <body>
481    
482     <p>
483 swift 1.72 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
484     go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
485 swift 1.4 complete.
486 swift 1.1 </p>
487    
488     <pre caption = "Building the System">
489 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
490 swift 1.1 </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493 swift 1.72 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
494     <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
495     </p>
496    
497     <p>
498 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
499     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
500     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
501 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
502 swift 1.28 </p>
503    
504     <p>
505 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
506     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
507 swift 1.28 </p>
508    
509     </body>
510     </subsection>
511     </section>
512    
513 swift 1.3 </sections>

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