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#92855: mention `emerge --sync --quiet` for slow terminals

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.78 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.77 2005/05/07 23:37:21 vapier Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.78 <version>2.5</version>
12     <date>2005-05-17</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 swift 1.2 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133     --sync</c> does this for you.
134 swift 1.2 </p>
135    
136 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 swift 1.13 </pre>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146     you.
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>
150 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
153 swift 1.13 </p>
154 swift 1.8
155     </body>
156     </subsection>
157 swift 1.72 <subsection>
158     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159     <body>
160    
161     <p>
162     First, a small definition is in place.
163     </p>
164    
165     <p>
166     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169     Gentoo developers.
170     </p>
171    
172     <p>
173     Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, recently,
174     x86, hppa and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel
175     and one for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the
176     integration of the 2.6 kernels.
177     </p>
178    
179     <p>
180     You can see what profile you are currently using by issuing the following
181     command:
182     </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
185     # <i>ls -l /etc/make.profile</i>
186     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 48 Mar 7 11:55 /etc/make.profile ->
187     ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0
188     </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191 vapier 1.77 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, you will see an
192 swift 1.72 additional profile in the one listed by the <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
193     </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
196     # <i>ls -F /etc/make.profile/</i>
197     2.4/ packages parent virtuals
198     </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     As you can see, in the above example there is a 2.4 subdirectory. This means
202     that the current profile uses the 2.6 kernel; if you want a 2.4-based system,
203     you need to relink your <path>make.profile</path> symlink:
204     </p>
205    
206     <pre caption="Relinking the profile">
207     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
208     </pre>
209    
210     </body>
211     </subsection>
212 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
213 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
214     <body>
215    
216     <p>
217     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
218     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
219     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
220     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
221     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
222     (X-server).
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
227     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
228 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
229 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
234     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
235     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
236     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
237     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
238     tweaked for GNOME.
239     </p>
240    
241     <p>
242 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
243     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
244     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
245     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
246     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
247 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
248     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
249     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
250     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
251     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
252     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
253     </p>
254    
255     <p>
256     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
257 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
258     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
259 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
260     </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
263     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
264 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
265 swift 1.23 </pre>
266    
267     <p>
268     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
269     and CD Recording support:
270 swift 1.21 </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
273     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
274     </pre>
275    
276     <pre caption="USE setting">
277     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
278     </pre>
279    
280 swift 1.69 </body>
281     </subsection>
282     <subsection>
283     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
284     <body>
285    
286 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
287     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
288 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
289     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
290 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
291 swift 1.74 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
292     but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
293 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
296 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
297     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
298 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
299    
300     <p>
301     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
302     </p>
303    
304 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
305 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
306 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
307    
308 swift 1.67 <p>
309     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
310     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
311     </p>
312    
313 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
314 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
315     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
316     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
317     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
318     </pre>
319    
320 swift 1.21 </body>
321     </subsection>
322 swift 1.3 </section>
323     <section>
324 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
325     <body>
326    
327     <p>
328     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
329     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
330     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
331 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
332 swift 1.1 </p>
333    
334     <ul>
335     <li>
336 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
337     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
338     to Stage2</uri>)
339 swift 1.1 </li>
340     <li>
341 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
342     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
343     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
344 swift 1.1 </li>
345     <li>
346 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
347 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
348     Kernel</uri>
349 swift 1.1 </li>
350     </ul>
351    
352     </body>
353 swift 1.3 </section>
354     <section>
355     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
356 swift 1.1 <subsection>
357     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
358     <body>
359    
360     <p>
361     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
362     </p>
363    
364     <p>
365     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
366     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
367     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
368     </p>
369    
370     <p>
371     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
372 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
373 swift 1.1 </p>
374    
375     <p>
376 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
377     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
378     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
379 swift 1.1 </p>
380    
381     </body>
382 swift 1.3 </subsection>
383     <subsection>
384 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
385     <body>
386    
387     <p>
388 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
389 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
390 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
391 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
392     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
393 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
394 swift 1.1 </p>
395    
396     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
397     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
398 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
399 swift 1.1 </pre>
400    
401     </body>
402 swift 1.3 </subsection>
403 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
404 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
405     <body>
406    
407     <p>
408     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
409 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
410     takes quite some time to finish.
411 swift 1.1 </p>
412    
413     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
414     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
415 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
416 swift 1.12 </pre>
417    
418     <p>
419 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
420     to Stage3</uri>.
421     </p>
422    
423 swift 1.1 </body>
424     </subsection>
425 swift 1.3 </section>
426     <section>
427     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
428 swift 1.1 <subsection>
429     <title>Introduction</title>
430     <body>
431    
432     <p>
433     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
434     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
435     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
436     </p>
437    
438     <p>
439     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
440 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
441     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
442 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
443     </p>
444    
445     </body>
446 swift 1.3 </subsection>
447     <subsection>
448 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
449     <body>
450    
451     <p>
452     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
453 swift 1.72 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
454     built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
455     <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
456 swift 1.1 </p>
457    
458     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
459 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
460 swift 1.1 </pre>
461    
462 swift 1.72 <p>
463     Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
464 swift 1.76 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
465     applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
466     flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
467     the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
468 swift 1.72 </p>
469    
470 swift 1.1 </body>
471 swift 1.3 </subsection>
472     <subsection>
473 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
474 swift 1.1 <body>
475    
476     <p>
477     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
478     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
479 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
480 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
481     </p>
482    
483     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
484 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
485 swift 1.1 </pre>
486    
487     </body>
488 swift 1.3 </subsection>
489     <subsection>
490 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
491     <body>
492    
493     <p>
494 swift 1.72 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
495     go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
496 swift 1.4 complete.
497 swift 1.1 </p>
498    
499     <pre caption = "Building the System">
500 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
501 swift 1.1 </pre>
502    
503     <p>
504 swift 1.72 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
505     <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
506     </p>
507    
508     <p>
509 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
510     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
511     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
512 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
513 swift 1.28 </p>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
517     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
518 swift 1.28 </p>
519    
520     </body>
521     </subsection>
522     </section>
523    
524 swift 1.3 </sections>

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