/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.80 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Jun 8 23:37:48 2005 UTC (9 years, 3 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.79: +17 -16 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#94952 "2.4 means 2.6" confuses users. Take 2. Thanks to dsd

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.80 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.79 2005/06/08 10:19:57 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 neysx 1.80 <version>2.7</version>
12     <date>2005-06-09</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 swift 1.2 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133     --sync</c> does this for you.
134 swift 1.2 </p>
135    
136 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 swift 1.13 </pre>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146     you.
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>
150 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
153 swift 1.13 </p>
154 swift 1.8
155     </body>
156     </subsection>
157 swift 1.72 <subsection>
158     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159     <body>
160    
161     <p>
162     First, a small definition is in place.
163     </p>
164    
165     <p>
166     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169     Gentoo developers.
170     </p>
171    
172     <p>
173 neysx 1.79 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
174     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
175     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
176     of the 2.6 kernels.
177 swift 1.72 </p>
178    
179     <p>
180 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
181 swift 1.72 </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
184 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
185     lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/
186 swift 1.72 </pre>
187    
188     <p>
189 neysx 1.80 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
190     profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
191     default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
192     </p>
193    
194     <p>
195     Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
196     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
197     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
198 swift 1.72 </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
201 neysx 1.80 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4</i>
202     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4
203 swift 1.72 </pre>
204    
205     <p>
206 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
207     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
208     the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
209 swift 1.72 </p>
210    
211 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
212     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
213 swift 1.72 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
214 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
215     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
216     total 12
217     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
218     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
219     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
220 swift 1.72 </pre>
221    
222     </body>
223     </subsection>
224 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
225 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
226     <body>
227    
228     <p>
229     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
230     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
231     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
232     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
233     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
234     (X-server).
235     </p>
236    
237     <p>
238     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
239     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
240 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
241 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
242     </p>
243    
244     <p>
245     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
246     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
247     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
248     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
249     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
250     tweaked for GNOME.
251     </p>
252    
253     <p>
254 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
255     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
256     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
257     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
258     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
259 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
260     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
261     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
262     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
263     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
264     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
265     </p>
266    
267     <p>
268     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
269 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
270     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
271 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
272     </p>
273    
274     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
275     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
276 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
277 swift 1.23 </pre>
278    
279     <p>
280     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
281     and CD Recording support:
282 swift 1.21 </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
285     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
286     </pre>
287    
288     <pre caption="USE setting">
289     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
290     </pre>
291    
292 swift 1.69 </body>
293     </subsection>
294     <subsection>
295     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
296     <body>
297    
298 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
299     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
300 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
301     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
302 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
303 swift 1.74 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
304     but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
305 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
306    
307     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
308 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
309     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
310 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
311    
312     <p>
313     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
314     </p>
315    
316 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
317 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
318 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
319    
320 swift 1.67 <p>
321     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
322     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
323     </p>
324    
325 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
326 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
327     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
328     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
329     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
330     </pre>
331    
332 swift 1.21 </body>
333     </subsection>
334 swift 1.3 </section>
335     <section>
336 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
337     <body>
338    
339     <p>
340     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
341     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
342     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
343 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
344 swift 1.1 </p>
345    
346     <ul>
347     <li>
348 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
349     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
350     to Stage2</uri>)
351 swift 1.1 </li>
352     <li>
353 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
354     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
355     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
356 swift 1.1 </li>
357     <li>
358 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
359 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
360     Kernel</uri>
361 swift 1.1 </li>
362     </ul>
363    
364     </body>
365 swift 1.3 </section>
366     <section>
367     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
368 swift 1.1 <subsection>
369     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
370     <body>
371    
372     <p>
373     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
374     </p>
375    
376     <p>
377     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
378     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
379     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
384 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
385 swift 1.1 </p>
386    
387     <p>
388 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
389     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
390     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
391 swift 1.1 </p>
392    
393     </body>
394 swift 1.3 </subsection>
395     <subsection>
396 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
397     <body>
398    
399     <p>
400 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
401 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
402 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
403 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
404     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
405 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
406 swift 1.1 </p>
407    
408     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
409     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
410 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
411 swift 1.1 </pre>
412    
413     </body>
414 swift 1.3 </subsection>
415 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
416 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
417     <body>
418    
419     <p>
420     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
421 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
422     takes quite some time to finish.
423 swift 1.1 </p>
424    
425     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
426     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
427 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
428 swift 1.12 </pre>
429    
430     <p>
431 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
432     to Stage3</uri>.
433     </p>
434    
435 swift 1.1 </body>
436     </subsection>
437 swift 1.3 </section>
438     <section>
439     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
440 swift 1.1 <subsection>
441     <title>Introduction</title>
442     <body>
443    
444     <p>
445     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
446     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
447     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
448     </p>
449    
450     <p>
451     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
452 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
453     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
454 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
455     </p>
456    
457     </body>
458 swift 1.3 </subsection>
459     <subsection>
460 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
461     <body>
462    
463     <p>
464     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
465 swift 1.72 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
466     built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
467     <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
468 swift 1.1 </p>
469    
470     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
471 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
472 swift 1.1 </pre>
473    
474 swift 1.72 <p>
475     Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
476 swift 1.76 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
477     applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
478     flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
479     the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
480 swift 1.72 </p>
481    
482 swift 1.1 </body>
483 swift 1.3 </subsection>
484     <subsection>
485 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
486 swift 1.1 <body>
487    
488     <p>
489     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
490     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
491 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
492 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
493     </p>
494    
495     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
496 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
497 swift 1.1 </pre>
498    
499     </body>
500 swift 1.3 </subsection>
501     <subsection>
502 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
503     <body>
504    
505     <p>
506 swift 1.72 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
507     go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
508 swift 1.4 complete.
509 swift 1.1 </p>
510    
511     <pre caption = "Building the System">
512 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
513 swift 1.1 </pre>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.72 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
517     <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
518     </p>
519    
520     <p>
521 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
522     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
523     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
524 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
525 swift 1.28 </p>
526    
527     <p>
528 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
529     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
530 swift 1.28 </p>
531    
532     </body>
533     </subsection>
534     </section>
535    
536 swift 1.3 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20