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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.83 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.22 2005/07/30 11:31:02 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.83 <version>2.10</version>
12     <date>2005-08-09</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
129 swift 1.2 <body>
130    
131     <p>
132 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
133     --sync</c> does this for you.
134 swift 1.2 </p>
135    
136 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
137 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
138 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
139     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
140     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
141 swift 1.13 </pre>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
145     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
146     you.
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>
150 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
151 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
152 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
153 swift 1.13 </p>
154 swift 1.8
155     </body>
156     </subsection>
157 swift 1.72 <subsection>
158     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
159     <body>
160    
161     <p>
162     First, a small definition is in place.
163     </p>
164    
165     <p>
166     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
167     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
168     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
169     Gentoo developers.
170     </p>
171    
172     <p>
173 neysx 1.79 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
174     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
175     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
176 swift 1.83 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
177     available as well. We will talk about those later.
178 swift 1.72 </p>
179    
180     <p>
181 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
182 swift 1.72 </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
185 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
186 swift 1.83 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/
187 swift 1.72 </pre>
188    
189     <p>
190 neysx 1.80 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
191     profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
192     default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
193     </p>
194    
195     <p>
196     Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
197     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
198     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
199 swift 1.72 </p>
200    
201     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
202 swift 1.83 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4</i>
203     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4
204 swift 1.72 </pre>
205    
206     <p>
207 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
208     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
209     the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
210 swift 1.72 </p>
211    
212 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
213     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
214 swift 1.83 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
215 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
216     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
217     total 12
218     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
219     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
220     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
221 swift 1.72 </pre>
222    
223 swift 1.83 <p>
224     For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
225     </p>
226    
227     <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
228     <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines)</comment>
229     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc /etc/make.profile</i>
230     <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
231     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
232     <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
233     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
234     <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
235     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
236     <comment>(G4 Pegasos profile)</comment>
237     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
238     </pre>
239    
240     <p>
241     For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
245     <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
246     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
247     <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
248     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
249     <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
250     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
251     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
252     <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
253     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
254     <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
255     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
256     <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
257     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
258     <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
259     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
260     <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
261     </pre>
262    
263 swift 1.72 </body>
264     </subsection>
265 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
266 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
267     <body>
268    
269     <p>
270     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
271     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
272     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
273     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
274     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
275     (X-server).
276     </p>
277    
278     <p>
279     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
280     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
281 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
282 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
283     </p>
284    
285     <p>
286     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
287     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
288     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
289     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
290     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
291     tweaked for GNOME.
292     </p>
293    
294     <p>
295 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
296     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
297     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
298     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
299     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
300 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
301     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
302     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
303     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
304     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
305     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
306     </p>
307    
308     <p>
309     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
310 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
311     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
312 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
316     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
317 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
318 swift 1.23 </pre>
319    
320     <p>
321     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
322     and CD Recording support:
323 swift 1.21 </p>
324    
325     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
326     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
327     </pre>
328    
329     <pre caption="USE setting">
330     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
331     </pre>
332    
333 swift 1.69 </body>
334     </subsection>
335     <subsection>
336     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
337     <body>
338    
339 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
340     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
341 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
342     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
343 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
344 swift 1.74 if you know what locales to choose. This will not work for the bootstrapping,
345     but when you recompile glibc afterwards it will.
346 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
347    
348     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
349 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
350     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
351 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
355     </p>
356    
357 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
358 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
359 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
360    
361 swift 1.67 <p>
362     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
363     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
364     </p>
365    
366 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
367 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
368     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
369     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
370     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
371     </pre>
372    
373 swift 1.21 </body>
374     </subsection>
375 swift 1.3 </section>
376     <section>
377 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
382     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
383     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
384 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
385 swift 1.1 </p>
386    
387     <ul>
388     <li>
389 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
390     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
391     to Stage2</uri>)
392 swift 1.1 </li>
393     <li>
394 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
395     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
396     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
397 swift 1.1 </li>
398     <li>
399 swift 1.69 If you chose <e>stage3</e> then you can skip both
400 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
401     Kernel</uri>
402 swift 1.1 </li>
403     </ul>
404    
405     </body>
406 swift 1.3 </section>
407     <section>
408     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
409 swift 1.1 <subsection>
410     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
411     <body>
412    
413     <p>
414     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
415     </p>
416    
417     <p>
418     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
419     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
420     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
421     </p>
422    
423     <p>
424     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
425 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
426 swift 1.1 </p>
427    
428     <p>
429 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
430     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
431     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
432 swift 1.1 </p>
433    
434     </body>
435 swift 1.3 </subsection>
436     <subsection>
437 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
438     <body>
439    
440     <p>
441 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
442 swift 1.69 script will download all necessary files. If you want to
443 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
444 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
445     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
446 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
447 swift 1.1 </p>
448    
449     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
450     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
451 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
452 swift 1.1 </pre>
453    
454     </body>
455 swift 1.3 </subsection>
456 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
457 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
458     <body>
459    
460     <p>
461     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
462 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
463     takes quite some time to finish.
464 swift 1.1 </p>
465    
466     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
467     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
468 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
469 swift 1.12 </pre>
470    
471     <p>
472 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
473     to Stage3</uri>.
474     </p>
475    
476 swift 1.1 </body>
477     </subsection>
478 swift 1.3 </section>
479     <section>
480     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
481 swift 1.1 <subsection>
482     <title>Introduction</title>
483     <body>
484    
485     <p>
486     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
487     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
488     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
489     </p>
490    
491     <p>
492     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
493 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
494     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
495 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
496     </p>
497    
498     </body>
499 swift 1.3 </subsection>
500     <subsection>
501 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
502     <body>
503    
504     <p>
505     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
506 swift 1.72 --pretend --emptytree system</c>. This will list all packages that will be
507     built. As this list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like
508     <c>less</c> or <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
509 swift 1.1 </p>
510    
511     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
512 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --pretend --emptytree system | less</i>
513 swift 1.1 </pre>
514    
515 swift 1.72 <p>
516     Note that, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, using
517 swift 1.76 <c>emerge --pretend --newuse system</c> is sufficient: it will rebuild the
518     applications that are affected by a change in USE flags (compared to the USE
519     flag we used while building the stage2). If you didn't touch
520     the USE flag either, why are you running a stage2 installation then?
521 swift 1.72 </p>
522    
523 swift 1.1 </body>
524 swift 1.3 </subsection>
525     <subsection>
526 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
527 swift 1.1 <body>
528    
529     <p>
530     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
531     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
532 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
533 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
534     </p>
535    
536     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
537 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --emptytree system</i>
538 swift 1.1 </pre>
539    
540     </body>
541 swift 1.3 </subsection>
542     <subsection>
543 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
544     <body>
545    
546     <p>
547 swift 1.72 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge --emptytree system</c>. Then
548     go do something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
549 swift 1.4 complete.
550 swift 1.1 </p>
551    
552     <pre caption = "Building the System">
553 swift 1.72 # <i>emerge --emptytree system</i>
554 swift 1.1 </pre>
555    
556     <p>
557 swift 1.72 Again, if you haven't touched the default CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS setting, using
558     <c>--newuse</c> is sufficient.
559     </p>
560    
561     <p>
562 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
563     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
564     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
565 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
566 swift 1.28 </p>
567    
568     <p>
569 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
570     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
571 swift 1.28 </p>
572    
573     </body>
574     </subsection>
575     </section>
576    
577 swift 1.3 </sections>

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