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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.85 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.84 2005/08/16 22:14:44 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.85 <version>2.12</version>
12     <date>2005-11-11</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
83     chrooted environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
98 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
99 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
100 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
101 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
106 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
107     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
108     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
109 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
113     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
114     # <i>env-update</i>
115 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
116 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
121 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
122 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126 swift 1.3 </subsection>
127 swift 1.85 </section>
128    
129     <section>
130     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
131 swift 1.3 <subsection>
132 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
133 swift 1.2 <body>
134    
135     <p>
136 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
137     --sync</c> does this for you.
138 swift 1.2 </p>
139    
140 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
141 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
142 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
143     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
144     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
145 swift 1.13 </pre>
146    
147     <p>
148 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
149     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
150     you.
151     </p>
152    
153     <p>
154 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
155 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
156 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
157 swift 1.13 </p>
158 swift 1.8
159     </body>
160     </subsection>
161 swift 1.72 <subsection>
162     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
163     <body>
164    
165     <p>
166     First, a small definition is in place.
167     </p>
168    
169     <p>
170     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
171     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
172     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
173     Gentoo developers.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177 neysx 1.79 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
178     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
179     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
180 swift 1.83 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
181     available as well. We will talk about those later.
182 swift 1.72 </p>
183    
184     <p>
185 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
186 swift 1.72 </p>
187    
188     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
189 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
190 swift 1.83 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/
191 swift 1.72 </pre>
192    
193     <p>
194 neysx 1.80 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
195     profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
196     default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
197     </p>
198    
199     <p>
200     Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
201     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
202     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
203 swift 1.72 </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
206 swift 1.83 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4</i>
207     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4
208 swift 1.72 </pre>
209    
210     <p>
211 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
212     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
213     the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
214 swift 1.72 </p>
215    
216 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
217     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
218 swift 1.83 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.1/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
219 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
220     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
221     total 12
222     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
223     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
224     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
225 swift 1.72 </pre>
226    
227 swift 1.83 <p>
228     For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
229     </p>
230    
231     <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
232     <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines)</comment>
233     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc /etc/make.profile</i>
234     <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
235     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
236     <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
237     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
238     <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
239     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
240     <comment>(G4 Pegasos profile)</comment>
241     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
242     </pre>
243    
244     <p>
245     For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2005.1.
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
249     <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
250     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
251     <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
252     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
253     <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
254     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
255     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
256     <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
257     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
258     <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
259     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
260     <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
261     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
262     <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
263     # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/2005.1/ppc64/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
264     <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
265     </pre>
266    
267 swift 1.72 </body>
268     </subsection>
269 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
270 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
271     <body>
272    
273     <p>
274     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
275     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
276     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
277     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
278     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
279     (X-server).
280     </p>
281    
282     <p>
283     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
284     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
285 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
286 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
287     </p>
288    
289     <p>
290     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
291     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
292     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
293     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
294     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
295     tweaked for GNOME.
296     </p>
297    
298     <p>
299 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
300     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
301     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
302     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
303     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
304 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
305     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
306     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
307     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
308     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
309     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
310     </p>
311    
312     <p>
313     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
314 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
315     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
316 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
317     </p>
318    
319     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
320     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
321 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
322 swift 1.23 </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
326     and CD Recording support:
327 swift 1.21 </p>
328    
329     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
330     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
331     </pre>
332    
333     <pre caption="USE setting">
334     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
335     </pre>
336    
337 swift 1.69 </body>
338     </subsection>
339     <subsection>
340     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
341     <body>
342    
343 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
344     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
345 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
346     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
347 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
348 swift 1.85 if you know what locales to choose.
349 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
350    
351     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
352 neysx 1.84 # <i>mkdir -p /etc/portage</i>
353 swift 1.54 # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
354 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
355    
356     <p>
357     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
358     </p>
359    
360 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
361 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
362 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
363    
364 swift 1.67 <p>
365     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
366     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
367     </p>
368    
369 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
370 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
371     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
372     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
373     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
374     </pre>
375    
376 swift 1.1 <p>
377 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
378 swift 1.28 </p>
379    
380     </body>
381     </subsection>
382     </section>
383 swift 1.3 </sections>

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