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2006.1 networked docs are in. portage handbook still untouched per separate bugs. thanks to all the hard work, guys. blame me if something is wrong (and please fix quickly) :)

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 nightmorph 1.93 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.6
7 nightmorph 1.98 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.97 2006/07/20 10:11:18 rane Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 nightmorph 1.98 <version>7.0</version>
12     <date>2006-08-30</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.70 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34 swift 1.71 <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38 swift 1.70 <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 swift 1.2 </p>
45    
46 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 swift 1.2 </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51 swift 1.70 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 swift 1.2 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56 swift 1.3 </subsection>
57     <subsection>
58 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 swift 1.18 </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77 neysx 1.88 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78 swift 1.43 <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 neysx 1.88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84 swift 1.43 </p>
85    
86 neysx 1.88 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87 swift 1.43 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 neysx 1.88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89 swift 1.43 </pre>
90    
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     <subsection>
94 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95 swift 1.1 <body>
96    
97     <p>
98 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101 swift 1.72 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103 swift 1.1 </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115     # <i>env-update</i>
116 neysx 1.92 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118 rane 1.87 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119 swift 1.1 </pre>
120    
121     <p>
122     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
125     </p>
126    
127     </body>
128 swift 1.3 </subsection>
129 swift 1.85 </section>
130    
131     <section>
132     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133 swift 1.3 <subsection>
134 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135 swift 1.2 <body>
136    
137     <p>
138 swift 1.69 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139     --sync</c> does this for you.
140 swift 1.2 </p>
141    
142 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144 neysx 1.78 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147 swift 1.13 </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150 swift 1.75 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152     you.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156 swift 1.13 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157 rane 1.94 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158 swift 1.13 </p>
159 swift 1.8
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162 swift 1.72 <subsection>
163     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164     <body>
165    
166     <p>
167     First, a small definition is in place.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174     Gentoo developers.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178 neysx 1.79 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
179     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
180     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
181 swift 1.83 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
182     available as well. We will talk about those later.
183 swift 1.72 </p>
184    
185     <p>
186 neysx 1.79 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
187 swift 1.72 </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
190 neysx 1.79 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
191 nightmorph 1.98 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
192 swift 1.72 </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195 neysx 1.80 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
196     profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
197     default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
198     </p>
199    
200     <p>
201     Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
202     If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
203     additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
204 swift 1.72 </p>
205    
206     <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
207 swift 1.86 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
208     /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
209 swift 1.72 </pre>
210    
211     <p>
212 neysx 1.80 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
213     complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
214     the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
215 swift 1.72 </p>
216    
217 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
218     <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
219 swift 1.86 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
220 neysx 1.79 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
221     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
222     total 12
223     -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
224     -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
225     -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
226 swift 1.72 </pre>
227    
228 swift 1.83 <p>
229 nightmorph 1.98 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1
230 swift 1.83 </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
233 josejx 1.91 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
234 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
235 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
236 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
237 swift 1.83 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
238 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
239 swift 1.83 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
240 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
241 fox2mike 1.90 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
242 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
243 swift 1.83 </pre>
244    
245     <p>
246 nightmorph 1.98 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1.
247 swift 1.83 </p>
248    
249     <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
250     <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
251 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
252 swift 1.83 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
253 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
254 swift 1.83 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
255     <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
256 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
257 swift 1.83 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
258 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
259 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
260 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
261 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
262 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
263 swift 1.83 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
264 nightmorph 1.98 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
265 swift 1.83 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
266     </pre>
267    
268 swift 1.72 </body>
269     </subsection>
270 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
271 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
272     <body>
273    
274     <p>
275     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
276     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
277     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
278     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
279     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
280     (X-server).
281     </p>
282    
283     <p>
284     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
285     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
286 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
287 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
288     </p>
289    
290     <p>
291     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
292     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
293     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
294     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
295     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
296     tweaked for GNOME.
297     </p>
298    
299     <p>
300 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
301     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
302     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
303     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
304     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
305 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
306     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
307     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
308     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
309     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
310     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
311     </p>
312    
313     <p>
314     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
315 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
316     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
317 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
318     </p>
319    
320     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
321     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
322 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
323 swift 1.23 </pre>
324    
325     <p>
326     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
327     and CD Recording support:
328 swift 1.21 </p>
329    
330     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
331     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
332     </pre>
333    
334     <pre caption="USE setting">
335     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
336     </pre>
337    
338 swift 1.69 </body>
339     </subsection>
340     <subsection>
341     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
342     <body>
343    
344 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
345 rane 1.95 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
346 rane 1.96 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
347 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
348    
349 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
350     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
351 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354 rane 1.95 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
355     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
356 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
357    
358 rane 1.95 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
359     en_US ISO-8859-1
360     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
361     de_DE ISO-8859-1
362     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
363 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
364    
365 swift 1.67 <p>
366 rane 1.95 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
367     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
368 swift 1.67 </p>
369    
370 rane 1.97 <note>
371     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
372     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
373     </note>
374    
375 swift 1.1 <p>
376 swift 1.85 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
377 swift 1.28 </p>
378    
379     </body>
380     </subsection>
381     </section>
382 swift 1.3 </sections>

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