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Thu Nov 2 07:27:24 2006 UTC (7 years, 5 months ago) by nightmorph
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Added grub-static for non-multilib systems, as well as added an AMD64-specific example for switching to a non-multilib profile, bug 79936

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.102 2006/11/01 21:40:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13 have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14 to progress to that state.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>7.5</version>
18 <date>2006-11-01</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34 </p>
35
36 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38 </pre>
39
40 <warn>
41 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42 </warn>
43
44 <p>
45 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 </pre>
55
56 <p>
57 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 </p>
60
61 </body>
62 </subsection>
63 <subsection>
64 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72 network.
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 </body>
81 </subsection>
82 <subsection>
83 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 </pre>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 <subsection>
100 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
105 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
106 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
107 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
108 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
113 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
114 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
115 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
116 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
120 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
121 # <i>env-update</i>
122 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
123 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
124 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
129 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
130 has some sections left :-)
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 </section>
136
137 <section>
138 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
139 <subsection>
140 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
141 <body>
142
143 <p>
144 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
145 --sync</c> does this for you.
146 </p>
147
148 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
149 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
150 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
151 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
152 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
153 </pre>
154
155 <p>
156 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
157 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
158 you.
159 </p>
160
161 <p>
162 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
163 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </subsection>
168 <subsection>
169 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 First, a small definition is in place.
174 </p>
175
176 <p>
177 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
178 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
179 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
180 Gentoo developers.
181 </p>
182
183 <p test="contains('Alpha x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
184 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, <keyval
185 id="arch"/> users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
186 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
187 of the 2.6 kernels.
188 </p>
189
190 <p test="contains('AMD64 arm HPPA IA64 MIPS PPC PPC64 SPARC', func:keyval('arch'))">
191 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
192 certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
193 </p>
194
195 <p>
196 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
200 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
201 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
206 recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
211 architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
212 one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
213 profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
214 </p>
215
216 <p test="func:keyval('arch')=AMD64'">
217 If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
218 libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
219 </p>
220
221 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')=AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
222 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/amd64/2006.1/no-multilib /etc/make.profile</i>
223 </pre>
224
225 <p>
226 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
227 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
228 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
229 </p>
230
231 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
232 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
233 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
234 </pre>
235
236 <p>
237 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
238 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
239 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so as follows:
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
243 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
244 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
245 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
246 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
247 total 12
248 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
249 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
250 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
251 </pre>
252
253 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
254 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
255 </p>
256
257 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'" caption="PPC Profiles">
258 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
259 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
260 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
261 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
262 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
263 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
264 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
265 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
266 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
267 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
268 </pre>
269
270 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
271 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
272 </p>
273
274 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'" caption="PPC64 Profiles">
275 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
276 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
277 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
278 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
279 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
280 <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
281 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
282 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
283 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
284 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
285 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
286 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
287 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
288 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
289 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
290 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
291 </pre>
292
293 </body>
294 </subsection>
295 <subsection id="configure_USE">
296 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
301 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
302 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
303 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
304 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
305 (X-server).
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
310 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
311 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
312 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
313 </p>
314
315 <p>
316 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
317 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
318 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
319 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
320 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
321 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
322 </p>
323
324 <p>
325 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
326 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
327 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
328 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
329 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
330 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
331 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
332 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
333 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
334 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
335 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
336 </p>
337
338 <p>
339 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
340 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
341 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
342 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
346 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
347 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
352 and CD Recording support:
353 </p>
354
355 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
356 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
357 </pre>
358
359 <pre caption="USE setting">
360 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
361 </pre>
362
363 </body>
364 </subsection>
365 <subsection>
366 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
367 <body>
368
369 <p>
370 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
371 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
375 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <p>
379 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
380 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
381 </p>
382
383 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
384 en_US ISO-8859-1
385 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
386 de_DE ISO-8859-1
387 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
392 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
393 </p>
394
395 <note>
396 <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
397 an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
398 </note>
399
400 <p>
401 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
402 </p>
403
404 </body>
405 </subsection>
406 </section>
407 </sections>

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