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added bind mount /sys for bug 166069

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.104 2006/11/02 09:50:33 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13 have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14 to progress to that state.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>7.6</version>
18 <date>2007-02-12</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34 </p>
35
36 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38 </pre>
39
40 <warn>
41 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42 </warn>
43
44 <p>
45 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 </pre>
55
56 <p>
57 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 </p>
60
61 </body>
62 </subsection>
63 <subsection>
64 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72 network.
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 </body>
81 </subsection>
82 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
83 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 </pre>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
100 <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
105 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
106 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
107 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
108 </p>
109
110 <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
111 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
112 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
113 # <i>mount -o bind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
114 </pre>
115
116 </body>
117 </subsection>
118 <subsection>
119 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
124 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
125 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
126 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
127 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
128 </p>
129
130 <p>
131 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
132 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
133 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
134 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
135 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
139 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
140 # <i>env-update</i>
141 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
142 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
143 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
148 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
149 has some sections left :-)
150 </p>
151
152 </body>
153 </subsection>
154 </section>
155
156 <section>
157 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
158 <subsection>
159 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
164 --sync</c> does this for you.
165 </p>
166
167 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
168 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
169 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
170 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
171 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
172 </pre>
173
174 <p>
175 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
176 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
177 you.
178 </p>
179
180 <p>
181 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
182 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </subsection>
187 <subsection>
188 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 First, a small definition is in place.
193 </p>
194
195 <p>
196 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
197 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
198 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
199 Gentoo developers.
200 </p>
201
202 <p test="contains('Alpha x86', func:keyval('arch'))">
203 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, <keyval
204 id="arch"/> users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
205 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
206 of the 2.6 kernels.
207 </p>
208
209 <p test="contains('AMD64 arm HPPA IA64 MIPS PPC PPC64 SPARC', func:keyval('arch'))">
210 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
211 certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
212 </p>
213
214 <p>
215 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
219 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
220 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 The default profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the
225 recommended default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
230 architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
231 one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
232 profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
233 </p>
234
235 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
236 If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
237 libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
238 </p>
239
240 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
241 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/amd64/2006.1/no-multilib /etc/make.profile</i>
242 </pre>
243
244 <p>
245 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
246 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
247 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
248 </p>
249
250 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
251 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
252 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
253 </pre>
254
255 <p>
256 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
257 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
258 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so as follows:
259 </p>
260
261 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
262 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
263 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
264 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
265 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
266 total 12
267 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
268 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
269 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
270 </pre>
271
272 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
273 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
274 </p>
275
276 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'" caption="PPC Profiles">
277 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
278 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
279 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
280 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
281 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
282 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
283 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
284 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
285 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
286 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
287 </pre>
288
289 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
290 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
291 </p>
292
293 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'" caption="PPC64 Profiles">
294 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
295 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
296 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
297 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
298 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
299 <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
300 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
301 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
302 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
303 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
304 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
305 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
306 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
307 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
308 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
309 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
310 </pre>
311
312 </body>
313 </subsection>
314 <subsection id="configure_USE">
315 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
316 <body>
317
318 <p>
319 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
320 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
321 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
322 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
323 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
324 (X-server).
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
329 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
330 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
331 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
332 </p>
333
334 <p>
335 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
336 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
337 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
338 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
339 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
340 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
341 </p>
342
343 <p>
344 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
345 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
346 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
347 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
348 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
349 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
350 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
351 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
352 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
353 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
354 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
355 </p>
356
357 <p>
358 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
359 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
360 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
361 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
362 </p>
363
364 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
365 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
366 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
367 </pre>
368
369 <p>
370 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
371 and CD Recording support:
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
375 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <pre caption="USE setting">
379 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
380 </pre>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 <subsection>
385 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
390 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
394 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
395 </pre>
396
397 <p>
398 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
399 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
403 en_US ISO-8859-1
404 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
405 de_DE ISO-8859-1
406 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
407 </pre>
408
409 <p>
410 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
411 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
412 </p>
413
414 <note>
415 <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
416 an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
417 </note>
418
419 <p>
420 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
421 </p>
422
423 </body>
424 </subsection>
425 </section>
426 </sections>

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