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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.11 2003/11/15 13:53:33 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16 as source code:
17 </p>
18
19 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21 </pre>
22
23 <p>
24 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36 is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39 network.
40 </p>
41
42 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 </pre>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Now that all partitions are initialised and the base environment
54 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
55 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
56 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
57 installation system (namely the initialised partitions).
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
62 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
63 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
64 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
65 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
69 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
70 # <i>env-update</i>
71 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
72 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
77 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
78 has some sections left :-)
79 </p>
80
81 </body>
82 </subsection>
83 <subsection>
84 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
85 <body>
86
87 <p>
88 If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
89 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
90 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect5">Optional: Using Distributed
91 Compiling</uri> or <uri link="#doc_chap2">Differences between
92 Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</uri>.
93 </p>
94
95 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
96 # <i>emerge sync</i>
97 </pre>
98
99 </body>
100 </subsection>
101 <subsection>
102 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
103 <body>
104
105 <p>
106 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
107 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
108 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
109 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
110 </p>
111
112 </body>
113 </subsection>
114 </section>
115 <section>
116 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
117 <body>
118
119 <p>
120 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
121 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
122 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
123 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
124 </p>
125
126 <ul>
127 <li>
128 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
129 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
130 to Stage2</uri>)
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
134 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
135 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
136 </li>
137 <li>
138 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
139 steps and continue with the next section: <uri
140 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
141 </li>
142 </ul>
143
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section>
147 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
148 <subsection>
149 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
150 <body>
151
152 <p>
153 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
158 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
159 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
164 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
165 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
166 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
171 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
172 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
173 </p>
174
175 </body>
176 </subsection>
177 <subsection>
178 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
179 <body>
180
181 <p>
182 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
183 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
184 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
185 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
186 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gjc</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
187 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
188 </p>
189
190 <p>
191 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
192 firing up the bootstrap script.
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
196 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
201 </p>
202
203 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
204 # <i>unset USE</i>
205 </pre>
206
207 </body>
208 </subsection>
209 <subsection>
210 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
215 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
216 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
217 download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
218 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
219 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
220 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
221 </p>
222
223 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
224 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
225 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
226 </pre>
227
228 </body>
229 </subsection>
230 <subsection>
231 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
236 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
237 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
238 finish.
239 </p>
240
241 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
242 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
243 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
248 previously, you need to reinitialise some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
249 work fast:
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Reinitialise environment variables">
253 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
258 to Stage3</uri>.
259 </p>
260
261 </body>
262 </subsection>
263 </section>
264 <section>
265 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
266 <subsection>
267 <title>Introduction</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
272 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
273 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
274 </p>
275
276 <p>
277 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
278 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use. However,
279 some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
280 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
281 </p>
282
283 </body>
284 </subsection>
285 <subsection>
286 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
291 -p system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
292 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
293 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
294 </p>
295
296 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
297 # <i>emerge -p system | less</i>
298 </pre>
299
300 </body>
301 </subsection>
302 <subsection>
303 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
308 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
309 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>-f</e>
310 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
314 # <i>emerge -f system</i>
315 </pre>
316
317 </body>
318 </subsection>
319 <subsection>
320 <title>Building the System</title>
321 <body>
322
323 <p>
324 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
325 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
326 complete.
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption = "Building the System">
330 # <i>emerge system</i>
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
335 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </subsection>
340 </section>
341 </sections>

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