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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.127 2012/12/09 13:29:00 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13 have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14 to progress to that state.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>20</version>
18 <date>2012-12-09</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34 navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35 mirrors.
36 </p>
37
38 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 </pre>
41
42 <p>
43 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 </p>
49
50 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 </pre>
53
54 <p>
55 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 </p>
58
59 <note>
60 If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61 check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62 list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63 <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64 single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65 specific mirror is offline.
66 </note>
67
68 </body>
69 </subsection>
70 <subsection>
71 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79 network.
80 </p>
81
82 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 </body>
88 </subsection>
89 <subsection test="not(func:keyval('arch')='IA64')">
90 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95 make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96 systems available there as well.
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 </p>
105
106 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 </pre>
111
112 </body>
113 </subsection>
114 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
115 <title>Mounting the /proc, /sys and /dev Filesystems</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
120 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
121 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
122 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Mounting /proc /sys and /dev">
126 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
128 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
129 </pre>
130
131 </body>
132 </subsection>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
139 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
140 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
141 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
142 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
143 </p>
144
145 <p>
146 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
147 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
148 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
149 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
150 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
151 </p>
152
153 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
154 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
155 # <i>env-update</i>
156 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
157 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
158 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
163 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
164 has some sections left :-)
165 </p>
166
167 <p>
168 If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
169 environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
170 </p>
171
172 </body>
173 </subsection>
174 </section>
175
176 <section id="installing_portage">
177 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
178 <subsection>
179 <title>Unpacking a Portage Snapshot</title>
180 <body>
181
182 <p>
183 You now have to install a Portage snapshot, a collection of files that inform
184 Portage what software titles you can install, which profiles are available, etc.
185 The contents of this snapshot will be extracted to <path>/usr/portage</path>.
186 </p>
187
188 <p>
189 We recommend the use of <c>emerge-webrsync</c>. This will fetch the latest
190 portage snapshot (which Gentoo releases on a daily basis) from one of our mirrors
191 and install it onto your system.
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync to install a Portage snapshot">
195 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage</i>
196 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
197 </pre>
198
199 </body>
200 </subsection>
201 <subsection>
202 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
203 <body>
204
205 <p>
206 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
207 --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
208 you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
212 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
213 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
214 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
215 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
216 </pre>
217
218 <p>
219 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
220 step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
221 </p>
222
223 <p>
224 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
225 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </subsection>
230 <subsection>
231 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 First, a small definition is in place.
236 </p>
237
238 <p>
239 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
240 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
241 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
242 Gentoo developers.
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
247 certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
252 </p>
253
254 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
255 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
256 Available profile symlink targets:
257 [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
258 [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
259 [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
260 </pre>
261
262 <p>
263 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
264 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
265 profiles.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
270 different one if you wish:
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
274 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
275 </pre>
276
277 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
278 If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
279 libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
280 </p>
281
282 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
283 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
284 Available profile symlink targets:
285 [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
286 [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
287 [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
288 [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
289 <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
290 # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
291 <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
292 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
293 Available profile symlink targets:
294 [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
295 [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
296 [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
297 [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
298 </pre>
299
300 <note>
301 The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
302 tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
303 </note>
304
305 </body>
306 </subsection>
307 <subsection id="configure_USE">
308 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
313 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
314 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
315 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
316 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
317 (X-server).
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
322 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
323 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
324 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
329 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
330 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
331 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
332 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
333 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
338 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
339 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
340 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
341 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
342 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
343 settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
344 default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
345 a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
346 in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
347 <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
348 you update Portage!
349 </p>
350
351 <p>
352 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
353 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
354 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
355 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
359 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
360 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
365 and CD Recording support:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
369 # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 <pre caption="USE setting">
373 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
374 </pre>
375
376 </body>
377 </subsection>
378 </section>
379 </sections>

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