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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.130 2013/01/08 19:18:37 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13 have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14 to progress to that state.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>23</version>
18 <date>2013-01-20</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want. Just
34 navigate to the mirrors of choice and press spacebar to select one or more
35 mirrors.
36 </p>
37
38 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
39 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
40 </pre>
41
42 <p>
43 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
44 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
45 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
46 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
47 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
48 </p>
49
50 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
51 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</i>
52 </pre>
53
54 <p>
55 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
56 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf</path> !
57 </p>
58
59 <note>
60 If you want to manually set a SYNC server in <path>make.conf</path>, you should
61 check out the <uri link="/main/en/mirrors-rsync.xml">community mirrors
62 list</uri> for the mirrors closest to you. We recommend choosing a
63 <e>rotation</e>, such as <c>rsync.us.gentoo.org</c>, rather than choosing a
64 single mirror. This helps spread out the load and provides a failsafe in case a
65 specific mirror is offline.
66 </note>
67
68 </body>
69 </subsection>
70 <subsection>
71 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
76 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
77 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
78 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
79 network.
80 </p>
81
82 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
83 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
84 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 </body>
88 </subsection>
89 <subsection>
90 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 In a few moments, we will change the Linux root towards the new location. To
95 make sure that the new environment works properly, we need to make certain file
96 systems available there as well.
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
101 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
102 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
103 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
104 </p>
105
106 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
107 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
108 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
109 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
110 </pre>
111
112 </body>
113 </subsection>
114 <subsection>
115 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
120 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
121 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
122 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
123 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
124 </p>
125
126 <p>
127 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
128 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
129 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
130 provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
131 The last step is to redefine the primary prompt to help us remember that we are
132 inside a chroot environment.
133 </p>
134
135 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
136 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
137 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
138 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
143 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
144 has some sections left :-)
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 If you at any time would need another terminal or console to access the chroot
149 environment, all you need to do is to execute the above steps again.
150 </p>
151
152 </body>
153 </subsection>
154 </section>
155
156 <section id="installing_portage">
157 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
158 <subsection>
159 <title>Unpacking a Portage Snapshot</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 You now have to install a Portage snapshot, a collection of files that inform
164 Portage what software titles you can install, which profiles are available, etc.
165 The contents of this snapshot will be extracted to <path>/usr/portage</path>.
166 </p>
167
168 <p>
169 We recommend the use of <c>emerge-webrsync</c>. This will fetch the latest
170 portage snapshot (which Gentoo releases on a daily basis) from one of our mirrors
171 and install it onto your system.
172 </p>
173
174 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync to install a Portage snapshot">
175 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage</i>
176 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
177 </pre>
178
179 </body>
180 </subsection>
181 <subsection>
182 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
183 <body>
184
185 <p>
186 You can now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
187 --sync</c> will use the rsync protocol to update the Portage tree (which
188 you fetched earlier on through <c>emerge-webrsync</c>) to the latest state.
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
192 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
193 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
194 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
195 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you safely ignore this
200 step as you already have a quite up-to-date Portage tree.
201 </p>
202
203 <p>
204 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
205 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
206 </p>
207
208 </body>
209 </subsection>
210 <subsection>
211 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
212 <body>
213
214 <p>
215 First, a small definition is in place.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
220 default values for USE, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
221 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
222 Gentoo developers.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 Previously, such a profile was untouched by the users. However, there may be
227 certain situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
228 </p>
229
230 <p>
231 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
232 </p>
233
234 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
235 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
236 Available profile symlink targets:
237 [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
238 [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
239 [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
240 </pre>
241
242 <p>
243 As you can see, there are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
244 architectures. Running <c>eselect profile list</c> will show all available
245 profiles.
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 After viewing the available profiles for your architecture, you can use a
250 different one if you wish:
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Changing profiles">
254 # <i>eselect profile set 2</i>
255 </pre>
256
257 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
258 If you want to have a pure 64-bit environment, with no 32-bit applications or
259 libraries, you should use a non-multilib profile:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Switching to a non-multilib profile">
263 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
264 Available profile symlink targets:
265 [1] <keyval id="profile"/> *
266 [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
267 [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib
268 [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
269 <comment>(Choose the no-multilib profile)</comment>
270 # <i>eselect profile set 3</i>
271 <comment>(Verify the change)</comment>
272 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
273 Available profile symlink targets:
274 [1] <keyval id="profile"/>
275 [2] <keyval id="profile"/>/desktop
276 [3] <keyval id="profile"/>/no-multilib *
277 [4] <keyval id="profile"/>/server
278 </pre>
279
280 <note>
281 The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
282 tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
283 </note>
284
285 </body>
286 </subsection>
287 <subsection id="configure_USE">
288 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
293 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
294 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
295 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
296 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
297 (X-server).
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
302 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
303 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
304 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
305 </p>
306
307 <p>
308 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
309 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
310 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
311 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
312 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
313 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
314 </p>
315
316 <p>
317 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
318 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
319 directory which <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
320 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
321 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
322 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults
323 settings. If you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the
324 default list. If you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing
325 a minus sign in front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was
326 in the default list at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the
327 <path>/etc/portage/make.profile</path> directory; it gets overwritten when
328 you update Portage!
329 </p>
330
331 <p>
332 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
333 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
334 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
335 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
339 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
340 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
345 and CD Recording support:
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Opening /etc/portage/make.conf">
349 # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
350 </pre>
351
352 <pre caption="USE setting">
353 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
354 </pre>
355
356 </body>
357 </subsection>
358 </section>
359 </sections>

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