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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.13 2003/11/23 14:21:50 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16 as source code:
17 </p>
18
19 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21 </pre>
22
23 <p>
24 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36 is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39 network.
40 </p>
41
42 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 </pre>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Now that all partitions are initialised and the base environment
54 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
55 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
56 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
57 installation system (namely the initialised partitions).
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
62 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
63 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
64 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
65 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
69 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
70 # <i>env-update</i>
71 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
72 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
77 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
78 has some sections left :-)
79 </p>
80
81 </body>
82 </subsection>
83 <subsection>
84 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
85 <body>
86
87 <p>
88 If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
89 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
90 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect5">Optional: Using Distributed
91 Compiling</uri> or <uri link="#doc_chap2">Differences between
92 Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</uri>.
93 </p>
94
95 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
96 # <i>emerge sync</i>
97 </pre>
98
99 <p>
100 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
101 update Portage, run <c>emerge --update portage</c> to get your Portage up to
102 date:
103 </p>
104
105 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
106 # <i>emerge --update portage</i>
107 </pre>
108
109 </body>
110 </subsection>
111 <subsection>
112 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
113 <body>
114
115 <p>
116 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
117 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
118 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
119 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
120 </p>
121
122 </body>
123 </subsection>
124 </section>
125 <section>
126 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
127 <body>
128
129 <p>
130 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
131 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
132 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
133 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
134 </p>
135
136 <ul>
137 <li>
138 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
139 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
140 to Stage2</uri>)
141 </li>
142 <li>
143 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
144 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
145 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
146 </li>
147 <li>
148 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
149 steps and continue with the next section: <uri
150 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
151 </li>
152 </ul>
153
154 </body>
155 </section>
156 <section>
157 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
158 <subsection>
159 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
164 </p>
165
166 <p>
167 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
168 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
169 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
174 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
175 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
176 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
181 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
182 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </subsection>
187 <subsection>
188 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
193 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
194 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
195 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
196 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gjc</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
197 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
198 </p>
199
200 <p>
201 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
202 firing up the bootstrap script.
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
206 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>
210 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
211 </p>
212
213 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
214 # <i>unset USE</i>
215 </pre>
216
217 </body>
218 </subsection>
219 <subsection>
220 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
221 <body>
222
223 <p>
224 If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
225 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
226 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
227 download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
228 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
229 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
230 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
231 </p>
232
233 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
234 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
235 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
236 </pre>
237
238 </body>
239 </subsection>
240 <subsection>
241 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
242 <body>
243
244 <p>
245 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
246 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
247 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
248 finish.
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
252 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
253 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
258 previously, you need to reinitialise some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
259 work fast:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Reinitialise environment variables">
263 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
264 </pre>
265
266 <p>
267 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
268 to Stage3</uri>.
269 </p>
270
271 </body>
272 </subsection>
273 </section>
274 <section>
275 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
276 <subsection>
277 <title>Introduction</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
282 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
283 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
288 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use. However,
289 some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
290 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
291 </p>
292
293 </body>
294 </subsection>
295 <subsection>
296 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
301 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
302 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
303 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
307 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 </body>
311 </subsection>
312 <subsection>
313 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
314 <body>
315
316 <p>
317 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
318 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
319 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>-f</e>
320 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
324 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 </body>
328 </subsection>
329 <subsection>
330 <title>Building the System</title>
331 <body>
332
333 <p>
334 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
335 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
336 complete.
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption = "Building the System">
340 # <i>emerge system</i>
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
345 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
346 </p>
347
348 </body>
349 </subsection>
350 </section>
351 </sections>

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