/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.21 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Dec 21 17:01:33 2003 UTC (10 years, 7 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.20: +60 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Fix #36241 - We recommend to change the USE variable based on the default USE settings, but the defaults arent available before the user runs emerge sync.

1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.20 2003/12/17 17:05:59 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16 as source code:
17 </p>
18
19 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21 </pre>
22
23 <p>
24 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36 is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39 network.
40 </p>
41
42 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 </pre>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
54 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure:
55 </p>
56
57 <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
58 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
59 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 </body>
63 </subsection>
64 <subsection>
65 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <p>
69 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
70 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
71 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
72 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
73 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
74 </p>
75
76 <p>
77 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
78 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
79 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
80 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
81 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
82 </p>
83
84 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
85 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
86 # <i>env-update</i>
87 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
88 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 <p>
92 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
93 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
94 has some sections left :-)
95 </p>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 <subsection>
100 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
105 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
106 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
107 variable</uri>.
108 </p>
109
110 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
111 # <i>emerge sync</i>
112 </pre>
113
114 <p>
115 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
116 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
117 on during the installation.
118 </p>
119
120 </body>
121 </subsection>
122 <subsection>
123 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
124 <body>
125
126 <p>
127 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
128 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
129 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
130 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
131 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
132 (X-server).
133 </p>
134
135 <p>
136 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
137 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
138 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define with what options a package
139 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
144 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
145 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
146 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
147 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
148 tweaked for GNOME.
149 </p>
150
151 <p>
152 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
153 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
154 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
155 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
156 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
157 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
158 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
159 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
164 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. As an
165 example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA and
166 CD Recording support:
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
170 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
171 </pre>
172
173 <pre caption="USE setting">
174 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
175 </pre>
176
177 </body>
178 </subsection>
179 <subsection>
180 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
185 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
186 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
187 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
188 </p>
189
190 </body>
191 </subsection>
192 </section>
193 <section>
194 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
195 <body>
196
197 <p>
198 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
199 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
200 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
201 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
202 </p>
203
204 <ul>
205 <li>
206 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
207 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
208 to Stage2</uri>)
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
212 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
213 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
214 </li>
215 <li>
216 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
217 steps and continue with the next section: <uri
218 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
219 </li>
220 </ul>
221
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 <section>
225 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
226 <subsection>
227 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
232 </p>
233
234 <p>
235 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
236 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
237 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
238 </p>
239
240 <p>
241 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
242 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
243 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
244 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
245 </p>
246
247 <p>
248 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
249 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
250 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
251 </p>
252
253 </body>
254 </subsection>
255 <subsection>
256 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
261 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
262 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
263 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
264 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
265 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
270 firing up the bootstrap script.
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
274 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
275 </pre>
276
277 <p>
278 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
282 # <i>unset USE</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 </body>
286 </subsection>
287 <subsection>
288 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
293 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
294 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
295 download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
296 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
297 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
298 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
302 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
303 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 </body>
307 </subsection>
308 <subsection>
309 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
314 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
315 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
316 finish.
317 </p>
318
319 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
320 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
321 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
326 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
327 work fast:
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
331 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>
335 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
336 to Stage3</uri>.
337 </p>
338
339 </body>
340 </subsection>
341 </section>
342 <section>
343 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
344 <subsection>
345 <title>Introduction</title>
346 <body>
347
348 <p>
349 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
350 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
351 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
352 </p>
353
354 <p>
355 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
356 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
357 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
358 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
359 </p>
360
361 </body>
362 </subsection>
363 <subsection>
364 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
369 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
370 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
371 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
375 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 </body>
379 </subsection>
380 <subsection>
381 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
386 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
387 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
388 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
392 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
393 </pre>
394
395 </body>
396 </subsection>
397 <subsection>
398 <title>Building the System</title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
403 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
404 complete.
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption = "Building the System">
408 # <i>emerge system</i>
409 </pre>
410
411 <p>
412 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
413 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
414 </p>
415
416 </body>
417 </subsection>
418 </section>
419 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20