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Fix #36605 (partly): inform users that the LiveCD uses devfs

1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.21 2003/12/21 17:01:33 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16 as source code:
17 </p>
18
19 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21 </pre>
22
23 <p>
24 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36 is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39 network.
40 </p>
41
42 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 </pre>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
54 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
55 you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
59 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
60 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
61 </pre>
62
63 </body>
64 </subsection>
65 <subsection>
66 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
71 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
72 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
73 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
74 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
79 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
80 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
81 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
82 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
83 </p>
84
85 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
86 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
87 # <i>env-update</i>
88 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
89 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
94 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
95 has some sections left :-)
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </subsection>
100 <subsection>
101 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
106 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
107 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
108 variable</uri>.
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
112 # <i>emerge sync</i>
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
117 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
118 on during the installation.
119 </p>
120
121 </body>
122 </subsection>
123 <subsection>
124 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
125 <body>
126
127 <p>
128 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
129 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
130 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
131 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
132 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
133 (X-server).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
138 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
139 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define with what options a package
140 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
141 </p>
142
143 <p>
144 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
145 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
146 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
147 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
148 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
149 tweaked for GNOME.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
154 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
155 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
156 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
157 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
158 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
159 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
160 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
165 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. As an
166 example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA and
167 CD Recording support:
168 </p>
169
170 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
171 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
172 </pre>
173
174 <pre caption="USE setting">
175 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
176 </pre>
177
178 </body>
179 </subsection>
180 <subsection>
181 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
182 <body>
183
184 <p>
185 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
186 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
187 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
188 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
189 </p>
190
191 </body>
192 </subsection>
193 </section>
194 <section>
195 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
196 <body>
197
198 <p>
199 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
200 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
201 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
202 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
203 </p>
204
205 <ul>
206 <li>
207 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
208 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
209 to Stage2</uri>)
210 </li>
211 <li>
212 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
213 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
214 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
215 </li>
216 <li>
217 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
218 steps and continue with the next section: <uri
219 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
220 </li>
221 </ul>
222
223 </body>
224 </section>
225 <section>
226 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
227 <subsection>
228 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
229 <body>
230
231 <p>
232 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
233 </p>
234
235 <p>
236 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
237 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
238 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
239 </p>
240
241 <p>
242 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
243 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
244 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
245 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
250 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
251 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </subsection>
256 <subsection>
257 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
258 <body>
259
260 <p>
261 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
262 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
263 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
264 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
265 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
266 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
267 </p>
268
269 <p>
270 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
271 firing up the bootstrap script.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
275 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
276 </pre>
277
278 <p>
279 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
283 # <i>unset USE</i>
284 </pre>
285
286 </body>
287 </subsection>
288 <subsection>
289 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
290 <body>
291
292 <p>
293 If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
294 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
295 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
296 download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
297 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
298 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
299 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
303 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
304 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
305 </pre>
306
307 </body>
308 </subsection>
309 <subsection>
310 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
315 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
316 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
317 finish.
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
321 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
322 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <p>
326 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
327 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
328 work fast:
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
332 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <p>
336 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
337 to Stage3</uri>.
338 </p>
339
340 </body>
341 </subsection>
342 </section>
343 <section>
344 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
345 <subsection>
346 <title>Introduction</title>
347 <body>
348
349 <p>
350 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
351 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
352 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
357 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
358 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
359 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
360 </p>
361
362 </body>
363 </subsection>
364 <subsection>
365 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
370 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
371 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
372 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
373 </p>
374
375 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
376 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
377 </pre>
378
379 </body>
380 </subsection>
381 <subsection>
382 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
387 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
388 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
389 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
390 </p>
391
392 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
393 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
394 </pre>
395
396 </body>
397 </subsection>
398 <subsection>
399 <title>Building the System</title>
400 <body>
401
402 <p>
403 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
404 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
405 complete.
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption = "Building the System">
409 # <i>emerge system</i>
410 </pre>
411
412 <p>
413 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
414 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
415 </p>
416
417 </body>
418 </subsection>
419 </section>
420 </sections>

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