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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.22 2004/01/01 15:24:24 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Chrooting</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 If you are booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
15 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
16 as source code:
17 </p>
18
19 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
20 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
21 </pre>
22
23 <p>
24 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
25 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment, and that
36 is copy over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
37 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
38 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
39 network.
40 </p>
41
42 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
43 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
44 </pre>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
54 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
55 you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
59 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
60 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
61 </pre>
62
63 </body>
64 </subsection>
65 <subsection>
66 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
71 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
72 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
73 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
74 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
79 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
80 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
81 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
82 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
83 </p>
84
85 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
86 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
87 # <i>env-update</i>
88 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
89 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
94 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
95 has some sections left :-)
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </subsection>
100 <subsection>
101 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
106 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
107 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
108 variable</uri>.
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
112 # <i>emerge sync</i>
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
117 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
118 on during the installation.
119 </p>
120
121 </body>
122 </subsection>
123 <subsection>
124 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
125 <body>
126
127 <p>
128 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
129 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
130 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
131 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
132 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
133 (X-server).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
138 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
139 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define with what options a package
140 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
141 </p>
142
143 <p>
144 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
145 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
146 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
147 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
148 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
149 tweaked for GNOME.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
154 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
155 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
156 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
157 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
158 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
159 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
160 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
165 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
166 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
167 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
168 </p>
169
170 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
171 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
172 </pre>
173
174 <p>
175 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
176 and CD Recording support:
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
180 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
181 </pre>
182
183 <pre caption="USE setting">
184 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
185 </pre>
186
187 </body>
188 </subsection>
189 <subsection>
190 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
195 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
196 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
197 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
198 </p>
199
200 </body>
201 </subsection>
202 </section>
203 <section>
204 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
205 <body>
206
207 <p>
208 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
209 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
210 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
211 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
212 </p>
213
214 <ul>
215 <li>
216 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
217 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
218 to Stage2</uri>)
219 </li>
220 <li>
221 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
222 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
223 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
224 </li>
225 <li>
226 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
227 steps and continue with the next section: <uri
228 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
229 </li>
230 </ul>
231
232 </body>
233 </section>
234 <section>
235 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
236 <subsection>
237 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
238 <body>
239
240 <p>
241 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
242 </p>
243
244 <p>
245 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
246 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
247 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
252 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
253 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
254 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
255 </p>
256
257 <p>
258 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
259 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
260 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
261 </p>
262
263 </body>
264 </subsection>
265 <subsection>
266 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
267 <body>
268
269 <p>
270 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
271 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
272 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
273 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
274 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
275 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
276 </p>
277
278 <p>
279 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
280 firing up the bootstrap script.
281 </p>
282
283 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
284 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
285 </pre>
286
287 <p>
288 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
292 # <i>unset USE</i>
293 </pre>
294
295 </body>
296 </subsection>
297 <subsection>
298 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
299 <body>
300
301 <p>
302 If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
303 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
304 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
305 download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
306 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
307 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
308 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all sourcecode for you.
309 </p>
310
311 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
312 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
313 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 </body>
317 </subsection>
318 <subsection>
319 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
320 <body>
321
322 <p>
323 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
324 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
325 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
326 finish.
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
330 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
331 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>
335 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
336 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
337 work fast:
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
341 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
346 to Stage3</uri>.
347 </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </subsection>
351 </section>
352 <section>
353 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
354 <subsection>
355 <title>Introduction</title>
356 <body>
357
358 <p>
359 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
360 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
361 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
362 </p>
363
364 <p>
365 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
366 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
367 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
368 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
369 </p>
370
371 </body>
372 </subsection>
373 <subsection>
374 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
379 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
380 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
381 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
382 </p>
383
384 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
385 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
386 </pre>
387
388 </body>
389 </subsection>
390 <subsection>
391 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
392 <body>
393
394 <p>
395 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
396 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
397 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
398 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
399 </p>
400
401 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
402 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
403 </pre>
404
405 </body>
406 </subsection>
407 <subsection>
408 <title>Building the System</title>
409 <body>
410
411 <p>
412 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
413 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
414 complete.
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption = "Building the System">
418 # <i>emerge system</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
423 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
424 </p>
425
426 </body>
427 </subsection>
428 </section>
429 </sections>

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