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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.26 2004/01/08 14:23:17 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code:
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 </pre>
48
49 </body>
50 </subsection>
51 <subsection>
52 <title>Optional: Mounting /dev</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Knoppix users (and people that install Gentoo from an installation medium that
57 does not use DevFS) should now bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure. If
58 you use one of our LiveCDs you can skip this step.
59 </p>
60
61 <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
62 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
63 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
64 </pre>
65
66 </body>
67 </subsection>
68 <subsection>
69 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>
73 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
74 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
75 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
76 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
77 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
78 </p>
79
80 <p>
81 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
82 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
83 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
84 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
85 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
89 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
90 # <i>env-update</i>
91 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
92 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
93 </pre>
94
95 <p>
96 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
97 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
98 has some sections left :-)
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 If you are <e>not</e> using GRP, you must download a recent Portage snapshot
109 from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this for you. GRP-users should skip
110 this and continue with <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect6">Configuring the USE
111 variable</uri>.
112 </p>
113
114 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
115 # <i>emerge sync</i>
116 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
117 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
118 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
123 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
124 on during the installation.
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 <subsection>
130 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
135 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
136 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
137 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
138 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
139 (X-server).
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
144 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
145 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
146 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
151 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
152 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
153 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
154 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
155 tweaked for GNOME.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
160 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
161 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
162 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
163 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
164 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
165 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
166 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
171 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
172 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
173 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
177 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
178 </pre>
179
180 <p>
181 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
182 and CD Recording support:
183 </p>
184
185 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
186 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
187 </pre>
188
189 <pre caption="USE setting">
190 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
191 </pre>
192
193 </body>
194 </subsection>
195 <subsection>
196 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
201 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
202 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
203 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
204 </p>
205
206 </body>
207 </subsection>
208 </section>
209 <section>
210 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
215 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
216 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
217 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
218 </p>
219
220 <ul>
221 <li>
222 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
223 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
224 to Stage2</uri>)
225 </li>
226 <li>
227 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
228 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
229 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
230 </li>
231 <li>
232 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
233 steps and continue with the next section: <uri
234 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>
235 </li>
236 </ul>
237
238 </body>
239 </section>
240 <section>
241 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
242 <subsection>
243 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
252 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
253 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
254 </p>
255
256 <p>
257 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
258 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
259 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
260 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
261 </p>
262
263 <p>
264 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
265 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
266 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </subsection>
271 <subsection>
272 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
277 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
278 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
279 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
280 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
281 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
286 firing up the bootstrap script.
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
290 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
291 </pre>
292
293 <p>
294 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
298 # <i>unset USE</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 </body>
302 </subsection>
303 <subsection>
304 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
305 <body>
306
307 <p>
308 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
309 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
310 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
311 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
312 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
313 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
314 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
318 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
319 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
320 </pre>
321
322 </body>
323 </subsection>
324 <subsection>
325 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
326 <body>
327
328 <p>
329 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
330 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
331 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
332 finish.
333 </p>
334
335 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
336 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
337 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
338 </pre>
339
340 <p>
341 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
342 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
343 work fast:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
347 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
352 to Stage3</uri>.
353 </p>
354
355 </body>
356 </subsection>
357 </section>
358 <section>
359 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
360 <subsection>
361 <title>Introduction</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
366 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
367 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
368 </p>
369
370 <p>
371 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
372 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
373 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
374 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
385 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
386 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
387 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
388 </p>
389
390 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
391 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
392 </pre>
393
394 </body>
395 </subsection>
396 <subsection>
397 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
402 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
403 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
404 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
408 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
409 </pre>
410
411 </body>
412 </subsection>
413 <subsection>
414 <title>Building the System</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
419 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
420 complete.
421 </p>
422
423 <pre caption = "Building the System">
424 # <i>emerge system</i>
425 </pre>
426
427 <p>
428 When the building has completed, continue with <uri
429 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
430 </p>
431
432 </body>
433 </subsection>
434 </section>
435 </sections>

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